Morphometric Study for Estimation and Validation of Trunk Transverse Surface Area To Assess Human Drag Force on Water

Open access

Morphometric Study for Estimation and Validation of Trunk Transverse Surface Area To Assess Human Drag Force on Water

The aim of this study was to compute and validate estimation equations for the trunk transverse surface area (TTSA) to be used in assessing the swimmer's drag force in both genders. One group of 133 swimmers (56 females, 77 males) was used to compute the estimation equations and another group of 131 swimmers (56 females, 75 males) was used for its validations. Swimmers were photographed in the transverse plane from above, on land, in the upright and hydrodynamic position. The TTSA was measured from the swimmer's photo with specific software. Also measured was the height, body mass, biacromial diameter, chest sagital diameter (CSD) and the chest perimeter (CP). With the first group of swimmers, it was computed the TTSA estimation equations based on stepwise multiple regression models from the selected anthropometrical variables. For males TTSA=6.662*CP+17.019*CSD-210.708 (R2=0.32; Ra2=0.30; P<0.01) and for females TTSA=7.002*CP+15.382*CSD-255.70 (R2=0.34; Ra2=0.31; P<0.01). For both genders there were no significant differences between assessed and estimated mean TTSA. Coefficients of determination for the linear regression models between assessed and estimated TTSA were R2=0.39 for males and R2=0.55 for females. More than 80% of the plots were within the 95% interval confidence for the Bland-Altman analysis in both genders.

Baldari C, Bonavolontà V, Emerenziani GP, Gallotta MC, Silva AJ, Guidetti L. Accuracy, reliability, linearity of Accutrend and Lactate Pro versus EBIO plus analyzer. Eur J Appl Physiol, 2009; 107: 105-111

Barbosa TM, Fernandes RJ, Morouço P, Vilas-Boas JP. Predicting the intra-cyclic variation of the velocity of the centre of mass from segmental velocities in butterfly stroke: a pilot study. J Sport Sci Med, 2008; 7: 201-209

Barbosa TM, Bragada JA, Reis VM, Marinho DA, Carvalho C, Silva AJ. Energetics and biomechanics as determining factors of swimming performance: updating the state of the art. J Sci Med Sports, 2010a; 13: 262-269

Barbosa TM, Costa MJ, Marinho DA, Coelho J, Moreira M, Silva AJ. Modeling the links between age-group swimming performance, energetic and biomechanic profiles. Ped Exerc Sci, 2010b; 22: 379-391

Barbosa TM, Costa MJ, Marques MC, Silva AJ, Marinho DA. A model for active drag force exogenous variables in young swimmers. J Hum Sport Exerc, 2010c; 5: 379-388

Bland JM, Altman DG. Statistical method for assessing agreement between two methods of clinical measurement. The Lancet, 1986; i: 307-310

Caspersen C, Berthelsen PA, Eik M, Pâkozdi C, Kjendlie P-L. Added mass in human swimmers: age and gender differences. J Biomech, 2010; 43: 2369-2373

Clarys JP, Jiskoot J, Risjken H, Brouwer PJ. Total resistance in water and its relationships to body form. In: Biomechanics IV. Eds: Nelson, RC and Morehouse, CA. Baltimore: University Park Press pp. 187-196, 1974

Clarys JP. Human morphology and hydrodynamics. In: Swimming III. Eds: Terauds, J and Bedingfield, EW. Baltimore: University Park Press pp. 3-42, 1979

di Prampero P, Pendergast D, Wilson D, Rennie D. Energetics of swimming in man. J Appl Physiol, 1974; 37: 1-5

Hollander P, de Groot G, van Ingen Schenau G, Toussaint HB, de Best W, Peeters W, Meulemans A, Schreurs W. Measurement of active drag during Crawl stroke swimming. J Sports Sci, 1986; 4: 21-30

Hopkins WG. Bias in Bland-Altman but not regression validity analyses. Sportscience, 2004; 8: 42-46

Huijing P, Toussaint H, Mackay R, Vervoon K, Clarys JP, Hollander AP. Active drag related to body dimensions. In: Swimming Science V. Eds: Ungerechts, B, Wilke, K, and Reischle, K. Illinois: Human Kinetics Books pp. 31-37, 1988

Kjendlie P-L, Stallman RK. Drag characteristics of competitive swimming children and adults. J Appl Biomech, 2008; 24: 35-42

Knechtle B, Baumann B, Knechtle P, Wirth A, Rosemann T. A Comparison of Anthropometry between Ironman Triathletes and Ultra-swimmers. J Hum Kinetics, 2010; 24: 57-64

Kolmogorov S, Duplishcheva O. Active drag, useful mechanical power output and hydrodynamic force in different swimming strokes at maximal velocity. J Biomech, 1992; 25: 311-318

Kolmogorov S, Lyapin S, Rumyantseva O, Vilas-Boas JP. Technology for decreasing active drag at maximal swimming velocity. In: Applied Proceedings of the XVIII International Symposium on Biomechanics in Sports - Swimming. Eds: Sander, RH and Hong Y. Edinburgh: Faculty of Education of the University of Edinburgh pp. 39-47, 2000

Kolmogorov S, Rumyantseva O, Gordon B, Cappaert, JM. Hydrodynamic characteristics of competitive swimmers of different genders and performance levels. J Appl Biomech, 1997; 13: 88-97

Kristensen MT, Bandholm T, Holm B, Ekdahl C, Kehlet H. Timed up & go test score in patients with hip fracture is related to the type of walking aid. Arch Physio Med Rehab, 2009; 90: 1760-1765

Marinho DA, Barbosa TM, Klendlie P-L, Vilas-Boas JP, Alves FB, Rouboa AI, Silva AJ Swimming Simulation. In: Computational Fluid Dynamics for sport simulation. Eds: Peter M. Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag pp. 33-61, 2009

Marinho DA, Barbosa TM, Garrido N, Costa AM, Reis VM, Silva AJ, Marques MC. Can 8-weeks of training affect active drag in age-group swimmers? J sport Sci Med, 2010b; 9: 71-78

Marinho DA, Barbosa TM, Mantripragada N, Vilas-Boas JP, Rouard AI, Mantha VR, Rouboa AI, Silva AJ. The gliding phase in swimming: the effect of water depth. In: Biomechanics and Medicine in Swimming XI. Eds: Kjendlie, P-L, Stallman, TK and Cabri, J. Oslo: Norwegian School of Sport Sciences pp. 122-124, 2010a

Mazza J, Ackland TR, Bach T, Cosolito P. Absolute body size. In: Kineanthropometry in Aquatic Sports. Eds: Carter, L and Ackland TR. Champaign, Illinois: Human Kinetics pp. 15-54, 1994

Nicolas G, Bideau B, Colobert B, Berton E. How are Strouhal number, drag, and efficiency adjusted in high level underwater monofin-swimming? Hum Mov Sci, 2007; 26 426-442

Nicolas G, Bideau B. A kinematic and dynamic comparison of surface and underwater displacement in high level monofin swimming. Hum Mov Sci, 2009; 28: 480-493

Pendergast DR, Capelli C, Craig AB, di Prampero PE, Minetti AE, Mollendorf J, Termin II, Zamparo P. Biophysics in swimming. In: Biomechanics and Medicine in Swimming X. Eds: Vilas-Boas, JP, Alves, F and Marques, A. Porto: Portuguese Journal of Sport Science pp. 185-189, 2006.

Siahkouhian M, Hedayatneja M. Correlations of anthropometric and body composition variables with the performance of young elite weightlifters. J Hum Kinetics, 2010; 25: 125-131

Silva AJ, Rouboa A, Moreira A, Reis VM, Alves F, Vilas-Boas JP, Marinho DA. Analysis of drafting effects in swimming using computational fluid dynamics. J Sport Sci Med, 2008; 7: 60-66

Strzała M, Tyka A, Zychowska M, Woznicki P. Components of physical work capacity, somatic variables and technique in relation to 100 and 400m time trials in young swimmers. J Hum Kinetics, 2005; 14: 105-116

Strzała M, Tyka A, Krężałek P. Physical endurance and swimming technique in 400 meter front crawl race. J Hum Kinetics, 2007; 18: 73-86

Tousssaint HB, Roos P, Kolmogorov S. The determination of drag in front crawl swimming. J Biomech, 2004; 37: 1655-1663

Wolfram U, Wilke HJ, Zysset PK. Valid micro finite element models of vertebral trabecular bone can be obtained using tissue properties measured with nanoindentation under wet conditions. J Biomech, 2010; 43: 1731-1737

Zamparo P, Antonutto G, Francescato MP, Girardis M, Sangoi R, Soule RG, Pendergast DR. Effects of body size, body density, gender and growth on underwater torque. Scand J Med Si Sports, 1996; 6: 273-280

Zamparo P, Gatta G, Pendergast D, Capelli C. Active and passive drag: the role of trunk incline. Eur J Appl Physiol, 2009; 106: 195-205

Journal of Human Kinetics

The Journal of Academy of Physical Education in Katowice

Journal Information


IMPACT FACTOR 2018: 1,414
5-year IMPACT FACTOR: 1,858

CiteScore 2018: 1.60

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2018: 0.644
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2018: 0.941

Cited By

Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 202 170 10
PDF Downloads 69 58 5