Acute Effects of Whole Body Vibration on Shoulder Muscular Strength and Joint Position Sense
Functional changes following whole body vibration (WBV) training have been attributed to adaptations in the neuromuscular system. However, these changes have mainly been observed in the lower extremity with minimal change to the upper extremity. The purpose of the study is to examine the acute effect of shoulder vibration on joint position sense and selected muscle performance characteristics (peak torque, time to peak torque, and power). Forty young individuals (19.84 ± 1.73 yrs, 171.41 ± 7.73 cm, 70.07 ± 9.32 kg) with no history of upper body injuries were randomly assigned to an experimental (Vibration) or control (No-Vibration) group. To assess shoulder proprioception, active and passive joint position senses were measured on both internal and external rotation of the shoulder. The muscle performance variables (peak torque and time to peak torque) were measured using isokinetic dynamometer with the velocity of 60°/sec. After three bouts of 1 minute vibration training, the experimental group demonstrated a significant improvement in the internal rotation peak torque, time to peak torque and external rotation time to peak torque (p<0.05). However, no-significant differences were revealed for joint position sense, external rotation peak torque, and time to peak torque between the groups. Our findings suggest that short bouts of vibration treatment have a significant effect on shoulder muscle characteristics.
Abercromby AF, Amonette WE, Layne CS, McFarlin BK, Hinman MR, Paloski WH. Variation in neuromuscular responses during acute whole-body vibration exercise. Med Sci Sport Exer 2007. 39:1642-1650.
Bishop, B. Vibratory Stimulation: Part 1. Neurophysiology of Motor Responses Evoked by Vibratory Stimulation. Physical Therapy 1974. 54:1273-1282.
Bongiovanni LG. and Hagbarth KE. Tonic vibration reflexes elicited during fatigue from maximal voluntary contractions in man. J Physiol 1990. 423:1-14.
Bosco C, Cardinale M, Tsarpela O. Influence of vibration on mechanical power and electromyogram activity in human arm flexor muscles. Eur J Appl Physiol O 1999. 79(4):306-311
Bosco C, Colli R, Introini E, Cardinale M, Tsarpela E Adaptive responses of human skeletal muscle to vibrations exposure. Clin Physiol 1999. 19:183-187.
Barden JM, Balyk R, Raso J, Mareau M, Bagnail K Dynamic upper limb proprioception in multidirectional shoulder instability. Clinical Orthopedics Related Research 2004. 420:181-189.
Burke D, Hagbarth KE, Lofstedt L, and Wallin BG. The responses of human muscle spindle endings to vibration of non-contracting muscles. J Physiol 1976. 261:673-693.
Capaday C, Cooke JD. The effects of muscle vibration on the attainment of intended final position during voluntary human arm movement. Exp Brain Res 1981. 42:228-230.
Cardinale, M., Bosco, B. The use of vibration as an exercise intervention. Med Sci Sport Exer 2003. 31:3-7.
Cardinale M, Lim J. The acute effects of two different whole body vibration frequencies on vertical jump performance. Medicine and Sport Science 2003. 56:287-292.
De Ruiter C, Van der Linden R, Van der Ziden A, Hollander P, De Haan A. Short-term effects of whole body vibration on maximal voluntary isomeric knee extensor force and rate of force rise. Eur J App Physiol 2003. 88:472-475
Eklund G. Position sense and state of contraction; the effects of vibration. J Neurol Neurosur Ps 1972. 35:606-611.
Eklund, G., Hagbarth, KE. Motor effects of vibratory muscle stimuli in man. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology. 1965. 19:619.
Fontana TL, Richardson CA, Stanton WR. The effect of weight-bearing exercise with low frequency, whole body vibration on lumbosacral proprioception: A pilot study on normal subjects. Aust J Physiother 2002. 51:259-263.
Goodwin GM, McCloskey DI, Matthews PBC. The contribution of muscle afferents to kinaesthesia shown by vibration induced illusions of movement and by the effects of paralyzing joint afferents. Brain 1972. 95:705-748.
Gooey K. Bradfiled O, Talbot J, Morgan DL, Proske U. Effects of body orientation, load and vibration on sensing position and movement at the human elbow joint. Exp Brain Res 2000. 133:340-348.
Gross MT. Effects of recurrent lateral ankle sprains on active and passive judgments of joint position. Phys Ther 1987. 67:1505-1509.
Hand J, Verscheure S, Osternig L. A comparison of whole body vibration and resistance training on total work in the rotator cuff. J Athl Training 2009. 44(5):469-474.
Janwantanakul P, Jones MA, Magarey ME, Miles TS, Grimmer KA. Characteristics of shoulder position sense: effects of mode of movement, scapular support, and arm orientation. J Sport Rehabil 2001. 11(3):157-168
Jaric S, Corcos DM, Gottlieb GL, Ilic DB, Latash ML The effects of practice on movement distance and final position reproduction: implication for the equilibrium-point control of movements. Exp Brain Res 1994. 100:353-359.
Jerosch K, Prymka M. Proprioception and joint stability. Knee Surgery Sports Trumatology Arthroscopic 1996. 4:171-179.
Latash ML. Control of human movement. Urbana, Human Kinetics 1993.
Lephart SM, Fu FH Proprioception and Neuromuscular Control in Joint Stability. Champaign, Human Kinetics. 2000
McNair PJ, Wood GA, Marshall RN. Stiffness of the hamstring muscles and its relationship to function in anterior cruciate deficient individuals. Clin Biomech 1992. 7:131-137.
Myers JB, Lephart SM. Sensorimotor deficits contributing to glenohumeral instability. Clin Orthop Relat R 2002. 400:98-104.
Myers JB, Lephart SM, Bradley JP, Riemann EL, Fu FH. Evaluation of shoulder proprioception and function following thermal capsulorrhaphy. Med Sci Sport Exer 2000 32:S123.
Radovanovic S, Jaric S, Milanovic S, Vukcevic I, Ljubisavljevic M, Anastasijevic R. The effects of prior antagonist muscle vibration on performance of rapid movements. J Electromyogr Kines 1998. 8:139-145.
Radovanovic S, Korotkov A, Ljubisavljevic M, Lyskov E, Thunberg J, Kataeva G, Danko S, Roudas M, Pakhomov S, Medvedev S, Johansson H. Comparison of brain activity during different types of proprioceptive inputs: a positron emission tomography study. Exp Brain Res 2002. 143: 276-285.
Riemann B, Myers BL, Lephart SM. Sensorimotor system measurement techniques. J Athl Training 2002. 37(1):85-98.
Rittweger J, Mutschelknauss M, Felsenberg D. Acute changes in neuromuscular excitability after exhaustive whole body vibration exercise as complared to exhaustion by squatting exercise. Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging 2003. 23:81-86.
Roelants, M., C. Delecluse, and Verschueren S. M. Whole-Body-Vibration Training Increases Knee-Extension Strength and Speed of Movement in Older Women. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society 2004. 52:901-908.
Roelants M, Verschueren S, Delecluse C. Whole-body-vibration-induced increase in leg muscle activity during different squat exercises J Strength Cond Res 2006. 20(1):124-129.
Rogers D, Bendrups A, Lewis M. Disturbed proprioception following a period of muscle vibration in humans. Neuroscience Letter 1985. 57:147-152.
Roll JP, Martin B, Gauthier GM. Effects of whole body vibration on spinal reflexes in man. Aviat Space Envir Md 1980. 51:1227-1233.
Sittig AC, Van Der Gon JJD, Gielen CCAM, Van Wijk AJM. The attainment of target position during step tracking movements despite a shift of initial position. Exp Brain Res 1985. 60:407-410.
Sullivan JA, Hoffman MA, Harter RA Shoulder joint position sense after thermal, open, and arthroscopic capsulorrhaphy for recurrent anterior instability. Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery 2008. 17(3):389-394.
Swanik KA, Lephart SM, Swanik CB, Lephart SP, Stone DA, Fu FH. The effects of shoulder playometric training on proprioception and selected muscle performance characteristics. Journal of Elbow Surgery 2002. 11(6):579-586.
Torvinen, S., H. Sievanen, T. A. Jarvinen, M. Pasanen, S. Kontulainen, and Kannus P. Effect of 4-min vertical whole body vibration on muscle performance and body balance: a randomized cross-over study. Int J Sports Med 2002. 23:374-379.
Tripp BL, Faust D, Jacobs P. Elbow joint position sense after neuromuscular training with handheld vibration. J Athl Training 2009. 44(6):617-623.
Wilcock IM, Whatman C, Harris N, Keogh J. Vibration training: could it enhance the strength, power, or speed of athletes? J Strength Cond Res 2009. 23(2):593-603.