Reliabity and Validity of the Trichotomous and 2×2 Achievement Goal Models in Turkish University Physical Activity Settings
The present research is designed to continue exploration of the reliability and validity of the 2 × 2 and trichotomous achievement goal frameworks in Physical Education Teacher Education (PETE) Turkish undergraduate physical activity courses. One hundred and fifty eight Turkish undergraduate students (116 males; 42 females) served as participants. They completed both the trichotomous and 2 × 2 achievement goal scales. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was employed to examine and construct the validity of both the 2 × 2 and trichotomous achievement goal models. The results showed that the 2 × 2 achievement goal model represents an adequate fit to the data (X 2/df = 1.66, CFI = 0.91, GFI = 0.93, NNFI = 0.89, and RMSEA = 0.06). Cronbach's alpha coefficients for the mastery-approach, performance-approach, mastery-avoidance, and performance-avoidance goals were 0.65, 0.68, 0.72, and 0.60, respectively, indicating acceptable internal consistency. However, CFA analysis pointed out that the trichotomous achievement goal model provided a poor fit to the data (X 2/df = 1.59, CFI = 0.85, GFI = 0.88, NNFI = 0.69, and RMSEA = 0.06), although Cronbach's alpha coefficients in the trichotomous achievement goal model indicated acceptable reliability (mastery goals = 0.70, performance-approach goals = 0.73, and performance-avoidance goals = 0.64). Results from the present study indicate that only the 2 × 2 achievement goal model provides a reliable and valid measure of achievement goals for Turkish undergraduate students.
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