Information Processes, Stimulation and Perceptual Training in Fencing
Learning and development of motor skills and techniques in fencing and other sports with open motor habits are based on perceptual processes involving the senses of vision, touch, and hearing. In fencing, the same stimuli can yield defensive or offensive actions, which are strictly related to the tactics and strategy. Different types of stimulation determine reaction time, movement time, and muscle bioelectric tension (EMG) in fencing. From the training process, controlling the significance of dominant stimuli should be taken into account. The results of presented studies of advanced and novice fencers show that the time of reaction to tactile stimulation is similar or slightly shorter than to acoustic stimuli followed by visual stimuli. The advanced fencers were faster than the novice fencers in all the studied parameters. The EMG signal was significantly lower in case of advanced fencers in all three types of stimulation. It can be a proof that the psycho-motor superiority of elite fencers results in a reduction of the bioelectrical tension of muscles involved in performing the motor tasks. Perceptual skills enable athletes to respond to important signals in sport competition and ignore disrupting ones which lower the effectiveness of sports combat. Time pressure during sports competition makes it necessary to reduce as much as possible the decision-making time and the time of sensorimotor responses in the motor phase. The study results show that experienced athletes make decisions much faster than their novice colleagues. It conforms to the main strategy of perceptual training, (i.e., gaining maximum benefits at the lowest expense). Speed of decision-making is strictly associated with the stimuli detection effectiveness and re-creation of acquired motor patterns.
Abernethy B. (1996) Training the visual-perceptual skills of athletes: Insights from the study of motor expertise, "American Journal of Sport Medicine", 24, pp. 589-592.
Borysiuk Z. (2000) Factors Determining Sport Performance Level for Fencers at the Preliminary and Championship Stages of their Training, ECSS Conference, Jyvaskyla, 721.
Borysiuk Z. (2006) Complex Evaluation of fencers' predisposition in three stages of sport development. Biology of Sport, vol. 23, No. 1, pp. 41-53.
Borysiuk Z., Zmarzły D. (2005) Surface electromyography (sEMG) as a research tool of psychomotor reactions. Annales Universitatis Mariae Curie-Skłodowska, Lublin-Polonia, 188-192.
Czajkowski Z. (2005) Understanding Fencing: the Unity and Practice. Staten Island, NY. SKA Swordplay Books,.
Czajkowski Z. (2001) Theory, Practice and Methodology in Fencing. Advanced Course for Fencing Coaches. AWF, Katowice.
Cheris E. (2002) Fencing: Steps to Success, Human Kinetics Publishing., II.
Enoka R. (2002) Neuromechanics of Human Movement, "Human Kinetics"
Ericsson M., Kilbom A., Wiktorin C., Winkiel J. (1991) Validity and reliability in the estimation of trunk, arm and neck inclination by observation. Proceedings of the International Ergonomics Association Conference. Paris: International Ergonomics Association, pp. 245-247.
Evangelista N. (2000) The Inner Game of Fencing: Excellence in Form, Technique, Strategy and Spirit. Master's Press, Lincolnwood, Illinois,.
Keele S. W., Hawkins H. L. (1982) Explorations of Individual Differences Relevant to High Level Skill, "Journal of Motor Behavior", 1. 112-128.
Keele S. (1986) Motor Control, [in:] Handbook of perception and performance, L. Kaufman J. Thomas K. Boff (eds.), New York.
Keller S. W., Tyszler D. A. (1970) Fiechtowanije po sablach, "Zdorowje". Kiev.
Klapp S. T., Erwin C. I., (1976), Relation between programming time and duration of the response being programmed, "Journal of Experimental Psychology; Human Perception and Performance", 2, pp. 591-598.
Kluka D. (1987) Visual skill enhancement, "Strategies", 1 (1), p. 20-24.
Knudson D., Morrison C. (2002) Qualitative analysis of human movement, second edition: Human Kinetics, Champaign.
Luce R. (1986) Response Times: Their Role In Inferring Elementary Mental Organization, New York.
Lukovich I. (1997) Fencing: the Modern International Style. Staten Island, NY. SKA Swordplay Books,.
Marino G. (1982) Qualitative biomechanical analysis of sports skills, "Coaching Science Update", 9, pp. 20-22.
McCormick E., Sanders M. (1982) Human factors in engineering and design, New York
Pashler H. (1994) Dual-task interference in simple tasks: Data and theory, "Psychological Bulletin", 116, pp. 220-244.
Pitman B. (1990) Fencing: Techniques of Foil, Epee, and Sabre. The Crowood Press, Gipsy Lane, Swindon, Wiltshire, SN2 6DQ,.
Proctor R. W., Dutta A. (1995) Skill acquisition and human performance. Thousand Oaks, Calif.: Sage Publications.
Quesada D. C., Schmidt R. A. (1970) A test of the Adams-Creamer decay hypothesis for the timing of motor responses, "Journal of Motor Behavior" 2, pp. 273-283.
Rhodes R. E., Courneya K. S., Hayduk L. A. (2002) Does Personality Moderate the Theory of Planned Behavior in the Exercise Domain?, "Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology" 1: 35-62.
Salczenko I. N. (1980) Dwigazjelnyje wzajmodijestwija sportsmienow, Kijew.
Seat J., Wrisberg J. (1996) The visual instruction system, "Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport", 67, pp. 106-108.
Schmidt R. (1991) Motor Learning and Performance. Human Kinetics Publishers, Champaign. Illinois.
Schmidt R., Wrisberg C. (2004), Motor learning and performance (3rd ed.) Champaign., Il; Human Kinetics.
Sternberg S. (1969) The discovery of processing stages: Extensions of Donders' method, [in:] Attention and performance II, W. G. Koster (ed.), 117-152. Amsterdam.
Starkes J. L., Ericsson K. A. (2003) Expert Performance in Sports. Human Kinetics. Champaign.
Shiffrar M., Freyd J. (1990) Apparent motion of the human body, "Psychological Science" 1, pp. 257-264.
Szabo L. (1998) Fencing and the Master. Staten Island, NY. SKA Swordplay Books,.
Tyshler D., Tyshler G. (1995) Fencing, Moscow.
Welford A. (1980) Motor skill and aging, [in:] Psychology of motor behavior in sport, Nadeau C., Halliwel W., Newell K., Roberts G. (eds.), pp. 253-268.
Williams A. M., Grant A. (1999) Training perceptual skill in sport, "International Journal of Sport Psychology", 30, pp. 194-220.
Williams A., Davids K., Burwitz L, Williams J. (1992) Perception and actions sport, "Journal of Human Movement Studies", 22, pp. 147-205.
Wood J., Abernethy B. (1997) An assessment of the efficacy of sports vision training programs, "Optometry and Vision Science", 74, pp. 646-659.
Zelaznik H., Schmidt R., Gielen C. (1986) Kinematic properties of rapid aimed hand movements, "Journal of Motor Behavior", 18, pp. 353-372.
Zukowski N. (1995) Influence of surprise on reaction time (in Polish: abstract in English) "Sport Wyczynowy", 11-12, pp. 21-26.