Prevalence and intensity of Cornudiscoides agarwali (Monogenoidea) on the gills of Day’s mystus (Mystus bleekeri) in relation to some ecological and biological factors from Arunachal Pradesh, India

Open access


This work investigated the relationship of host size, seasons, and water quality parameters with the prevalence and intensity of Cornudiscoides agarwali on Mystus bleekeri collected from the Dikrong River in Arunachal Pradesh, India from February 2016 to January 2017. A total of 2760 specimens of C. agarwali were recovered from 114 individuals of M. bleekeri. The levels of mean intensity, but not the prevalence, of infection of C. agarwali were positively correlated with fish host size, peaking in the largest size class (45.20 ± 5.69 parasites/fish). The prevalence values had a statistically significant seasonal trend, reaching highest (100 %) during the pre-monsoon season, followed by 91.8% during the post-monsoon period and 87.5 % during the monsoon season. The levels of mean intensity of infection were also dependent on the seasons, reaching significantly higher levels during the pre-monsoon season (42.75 ± 4.18 parasites/fish). All water quality parameters measured were within the safety value recommended for freshwater aquaculture. Cornudiscoides agarwali maintained its prevalence above 87.5 % throughout the annual cycle, which means it was able to reproduce year-round in a non-polluted river. This could be an indication of monogenoidean community and population dynamics thriving best under optimum water quality parameters. Also, this article draws the attention of parasitologists and ichthyologists to a taxonomic problem of the misidentification of Mystus spp., and therefore, possibly of their parasitic monogenoids.

Agarwal, N., Vishwakarma, P. (1996): Six new species and redescription of two known species of Cornudiscoides Kulkarni, 1969 (Monogenea) from Lucknow, U.P. Indian J. Helminth. (N.S.), 13: 10 – 31

Anderson, R.M. (1974): An analysis of the influence of host morphometric features on the population dynamics of Diplozoon paradoxum (Nordmann, 1832). J. Anim. Ecol., 43: 873 – 887. DOI: 10.2307/3541

American Public Health Association (1998): Standard Method for the Examination of Water and Waste Water. 20th Edition, Washington, USA, American Water Work Association and Water Environment Federation, 361 pp.

Bagra, K., Kadu, K., Sharma, K.N., Laskar, B.A., Sarkar, U.A., Das, D.N. (2009): Ichthyological survey and review of the checklist of fish fauna of Arunachal Pradesh, India. Check List, 5: 330 – 350. DOI: 10.15560/5.2.330

Beer, S.A., German, S.M. (1993): The ecological prerequisites for a worsening of the cercariasis situation in the cities of Russia (exemplified by the Moscow region). Parazitologiia, 27(6): 441 – 449.

Boyd, C.E. (1979): Water Quality in Warm Water Fish Ponds. Alabama, USA, Auburn University, 359 pp.

Bush, A.O., Lafferty, K.D., Lotz, J.M., Shostak, A.W. (1997): Parasitology meets ecology on its own terms: Margolis et al. revisited. Int. J. Parasitol., 83: 575 – 583. DOI: 10.2307/3284227

Chetry, D.B., Narba, D., Tripathi, A. (2012): Traditional fishing methods in Arunachal Pradesh. In A. Tripathi (Ed.) Proceedings of the 1st National Symposium on Fish Parasites Itanagar, Helminthological Society of India, March 19 – 20, 2012. pp 41 – 44

Choudhary, K., Tripathi, A., Pandey, K.C., Agrawal, N. (2017): Morphological and molecular characterisation of three Indian Neascus-type metacercariae (Digenea: Diplostomidae). Parasitol. Int., 66: 652 – 659. DOI: 10.1016/j.parint.2017.06.007

Dahanukar, N. (2011): Mystus keletius. In: IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2011: e.T172324A6867980. Retrieved March 18, 2018 from–1.RLTS.T172324A6867980.en.

Darshan. A., Mahanta, P.C., Barat, A., Kumar, P. (2013): Redescription of the striped catfish mystus tengara (Hamilton, 1822) (Siluriformes: Bagridae), India. J. Threat. Taxa, 5(1): 3536 – 3541. DOI: 10.11609/JoTT.o2813.842

Deka, J.P., Tayeng, G., Singh, S., Hoque, R.R., Prakash, A., Kumar, M. (2015): Source and seasonal variation in the major ion chemistry of two eastern Himalayan high altitude lakes. Arabian J. Geosci., 8(12):10597 – 10610. DOI: 10.1007/s12517-015-1964-7

Desdevises, Y., Morand, S., Legendre, P. (2002): Evolution and determinants of host specificity in the genus Lamellodiscus (Monogenea). Biol. J. Linn. Soc., 77: 431 – 443

Froese, R., Pauly, D. (2018): Fish Base. Retrieved March 2, 2018 from

Ganicott, A.M., Tinsley, R.C. (1998): Larval survival characteristics and behaviour of the gill monogenean Discocotyle sagittata. Parasitology, 117: 491 – 498

Guegan, J.F., Lambert, A., Leveque, C., Combes, C., Euzet, L. (1992): Can host body size explain the parasite species richness in tropical freshwater fishes? Oecol., 90:197 – 204

Gussev, A.V. (1976): Freshwater Indian monogenoidea: Principles of systematics, analysis of the world faunas and their evolution. Ind. J. Helminthol., 25 – 26: 1 – 241

Höglund, J., Thulin, J. (1989): Thermal effects on the seasonal dynamics of Paradiplozoon homoion (Bychowsky and Nagibina, 1959) parasitizing roach, Rutilus rutilus (L.). J. Helminthol., 63: 93 – 101. DOI: 10.1017/S0022149X0000883X

Hossain, M.Y. (2014): Threatened fishes of the world: (Bloch, 1794) (Siluriformes: Bagridae). Croatian Journal of Fisheries, 72: 183 – 185

Huda, E.A. (2017): Morphometric characteristics of Dikrong River catchment in the foot-hills of Arunachal Himalayas. IOSR Journal of Humanities and Social Science, 22(7): 51 – 60

Jayaram, K.C (1999): The Freshwater Fishes of the Indian Region Narendra Publishing House, pp551.

Jayaram, K.C., Sanyal, A. (2003): A taxonomic revision of the fishes of the genus Mystus Scopoli. (Family: Bagridae) records of the zoological survey of India. Zoological Survey of India, 207: 1 – 141

Johal M.S., Tandon, K.K. (1979): Monograph on the fishes of organised Punjab. Part I. Punjab Fish Bulletin, 3(2): 1 – 44

Jokinen, E.I., Aaltonen, T.M., Valtonen, E.T. (1995): Subchronic effects of pulp and paper mill effluents on the immunoglobulin synthesis of roach Rutilus rutilus. Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf., 32: 219–263. DOI: 10.1006/eesa.1995.1107

Kim, K.H., Ahn, K.J., Kim, C.S. (2001): Seasonal abundances of Prosomicrocotyla gotoi (Monogenea) and Opecoelus sphaericus (Digenea) from greenlings Hexagrammos otakii in a southern coastal area in Korea. Aquaculture, 192(2 – 4):147 – 153. DOI: 10.1016/S0044-8486(00)00464-6

Kottelat, M., Whitten, T. (1996): Freshwater biodiversity in Asia with special reference to fish. In: World Bank Tech. Paper No. 343. The World Bank, Washington, DC., pp 17 – 22

Kritsky, D.C., Thatcher, V.E., Boeger, W.A. (1986): Neotropical Monogenea. Revision of Urocleidoides (Dactylogyridae, Ancyrocephalinae). Proc. Helminthol. Soc. Wash., 53: 1 – 37

Lim, L.H.S., Timofeeva, T.A., Gibson, D.I. (2001): Dactylogyridean monogeneans of the siluriform fishes of the Old World. Syst. Parasitol., 50: 159 – 197

Marcogliese, D.J. (2001) Implications of climate change for parasitism of animals in the aquatic environment. Can J Zool., 2001, 79(8): 1331 – 1352. DOI: 10.1139/z01-067

Mahanta, P.C., Sarma, D. Dutta, R. (2012). Ecological Status and Fishery Potential of Deopani: a Coldwater Stream of Arunachal Pradesh. The Clarion, 1: 37 – 45

McDowell, J.E., Lancaster, B.A., Leavitt, D.F., Rantamaki, P., Ripley, B. (1999): The effects of lipophilic organic contaminants on reproductive physiology and disease processes in marine bivalve molluscs. Am. Soc. Limnol. Oceanogr., 44: 903 – 909

National Commission On Farmers (2004): Serving farmers and saving farming from crisis to confidence (second report), New Delhi. 523 pp. Retrieved from

Ng, H.H. (2002): The identity of Mystus nigriceps (Valenciennes in Cuvier & Valenciennes, 1840), with the description of a new bagrid catfish (Teleostei: Siluriformes) from Southeast Asia. Raffles B. Zool., 50: 161 – 168.

Ng, H.H. (2010): Mystus bleekeri. 2010 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: e.T166611A6247112.15. Retrieved February 2018 from 20104.RLTS. T166611A6247112.en

Pandey, K.C., Agrawal, N. (2008): An Encyclopedia of Indian Monogenoidea. New Delhi, Vitasta Publishing Pvt. Ltd., 552 pp.

Pandey, A., Dabral, P.P., Chowdary, V.M., Yadav, N.K. (2008): Landslide hazard zonation using remote sensing and GIS: A case study of Dikrong River basin, Arunachal Pradesh, India. Environ. Geol., 54: 1517 – 1529. DOI: 10.1007/s00254-007-0933-1

Peters, R. H. (1983): The ecological implications of body size. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. DOI: 10.1017/CBO9780511608551

Plamoottil, M. (2017): Taxonomic notes on Mystus species of northern Kerala. J. Aquacult. Res. Dev., 8: 495. DOI: 10.4172/2155-9546.1000495

Poulin, R. (1998): Evolutionary Ecology of Parasites: From Individuals to Communities. London, Chapman and Hall, 212 pp.

Sasal, P., Trouve, S., Muller-Graf, C., Morand, S. (1999): Specificity and host predictability: a comparative analysis among monogenean parasites of fish. J. Anim. Ecol., 68, 437 – 444. DOI: 10.1046/j.1365-2656.1999.00313.x

Semwal, N., Akolkar, P. (2006): Water quality assessment of sacred Himalayan rivers of Uttaranchal. Curr. Sci., 91: 486 – 496

Siddall, R., Koskivaara, M., Valtonen, E.T. (1996): Dactylogyrus (Monogenea) infections on the gills of roach (Rutilus rutilus L.) experimentally exposed to paper and pulp mill effluent. Parasitology, 114: 439 – 446. DOI: 10.1017/S003118209600875X

Silan, P., Maillard, C. (1989): Biologie comparée du développement et discrimination des Diplectanidae ectoparasites du Bar (Teleostei).[Comparative biology of development and discrimination of Diplectanidae, ectoparasites of sea bass (Teleostei)]. Annls Sci. Nat., 10: 31 – 45 (In French)

Simkova, A., Desdevises, Y., Gelnar, M., Morand, S. (2000): Co-existence of nine gill ectoparasites (Dactylogyrus: Monogenea) parasitising the roach (Rutilus rutilus L.): history and present ecology. Int. J. Parasitol., 30: 1077 – 1088. DOI: 10.1016/S0020-7519(00)00098-9

Singh, S.S., Chingakham, B.S., Gusheinzed, W. (2013): Karyotype Analysis of the New Catfish Mystus ngasep (Siluriformes: Bagridae) from Manipur, India. Turk. J. Fish. Aquat. Sc., 13: 179 – 185. DOI: 10.4194/1303-2712-v13_1_21

Soni, V., Shekhar, S., Singh, D. (2014): Environmental flow for the Yamuna river in Delhi as an example of monsoon rivers in India. Curr. Sci., 106: 558 – 564

Sures, B. (2004): Environmental Parasitology: Relevancy of parasites in monitoring environmental pollution. Trends Parasitol., 20: 170 – 177. DOI:10.1016/

Swan, L.D. (1997): A Fish Farmer’s Guide to Understanding Water Quality, Aquaculture Extension. Illinois, USA, Purdue University, Indiana Sea Grant Program Fact Sheet AS-503.

Thompson, J. D., Higgins, D.G., Gibson, T.J. (1994): ClustalW: improving the sensitivity of progressive multiple sequence alignment through sequence weighting, position-specific gap penalties and weight matrix choice. Nucleic Acids Res., 22 (22): 4673 – 4680. DOI: 10.1093/nar/22.22.4673

Thoney, D.A., Hargis, W.H.J. (1991): Monogenea (Platyhelminthes) as hazards for fish in confinement. Annu. Rev. Fish Dis., 1: 133 – 153. DOI: 10.1016/0959-8030(91)90027-H

Tripathi, A. (2014): The invasive potential of parasitic monogenoids (platyhelminthes) via the aquarium fish trade: An appraisal with special reference to India. Rev. Aquacult., 6: 147 – 161. DOI: 10.1111/raq.12035

Valtonen, E.T., Holmes, J.C., Koskivaara, M. (1997): Eutrophication, pollution, and fragmentation: effects on parasite communities in roach (Rutilus rutilus) and perch (Perca fluviatilis) in four lakes in central Finland. Can. J. Fish Aquat. Sci., 54(3): 572 – 585, DOI: 10.1139/f96-306

Wangchu, L., Narba, D., Yassa, M., Tripathi, A. (2017): Dactylogyrus barnae sp. n. (Platyhelminthes: Monogenoidea) infecting gills of Barilius barna Hamilton, 1822 (Pisces: Cyprinidae) from a global biodiversity hotspot - Arunachal Pradesh (India). Vet. World, 10(5), 505 – 509. DOI:10.14202/vetworld.2017.505-509

Wetzel, R.G. (1983): Limnology. 2nd Edition, Philadelphia, USA, Saunders College Publishing

Journal Information

IMPACT FACTOR 2017: 0.417
5-year IMPACT FACTOR: 0.619

CiteScore 2018: 0.8

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2018: 0.398
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2018: 0.554

Target Group researchers in the field of human, veterinary medicine and natural science


All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 93 93 44
PDF Downloads 61 61 17