Snakehead fishes are widely consumed throughout South East Asia, China and India because of their good taste of meat and high nutrient values such as presence of prostaglandins, thromboxane and Omega-6 fatty acid. Parasitic infection constitutes significant economic loss in fish production. The aim of this work was to study the seasonal variation of helminths in snakeheads. In the presented study, a three-year survey has been performed. A total of 1013 individuals of Channa punctatus and 247 individuals of Channa striatus were examined. A total of 3783 helminths were collected, with an average of 3.02 helminths/fish. 43.50 % individuals of C. punctatus and 59.10 % of C. striatus were found to be infected with acanthocephalans, trematodes, nematodes and cestodes per year. The prevalence and mean abundance of Pallisentis sp. was at its peak in summer. However the prevalence of trematodes, nematodes and cestodes was at peak during autumn. Mean abundance of nematodes was at peak in summer. Interestingly, the males were found more infected as compared to the females and the infection rate in males peaked in summer. In comparison to other weight groups, medium size hosts (21 – 40 g) were found more consistently infected. Thus the results indicate that there are seasonal variations in parasitic helminths infecting C. punctatus and C. striatus which also depend upon sex and weight. These variations may be attributed to various environmental and biological factors including parasite life cycle and immune level of host.
Amin, O.M., Heckemann, R.A., Van, Ha, N., Luc, P.V., Doanh, P.N. (2000); Revision of the genus Pallisentis (Acanthocephala: Quadrigyridae) with the erection of three New sub-genera, the description of Pallisentis (Bervitritospinus) vietnamensis subgen. et sp. n., a key to the species of Pallisentis, and the description of a new Quadrigyrid genus, Pararaosentis gen. n. Comp. Parasitol., 67(1): 40 – 50
Bhalerao, G.D. (1937): Studies on the Helminths of Indian Trematoda, IV. J. Helminthol., 15 (2): 97 – 124. DOI: 10.1017/S0022149X00030753
Bush, A.O., Lafferty, K.D., Lotz, J.M., Shostak, A. W. (1997): Parasitology meets ecology on its own terms: Margolis et al. revisited. J. Parasitol., 83(4): 575 – 583. DOI: 10.2307/3284227
Bhattacharya, S.B. (2007): Handbook on Indian Acanthocephala. Kolkata, India, Zoological Survey, 225pp.
Boping, Z., Wang, W. (2007): Seasonal population dynamics of Pallisentis (Neosentis) celatus (Acanthocephala: Quadrigyridae) in the intestine of the rice-field eel Monopterus albus in China. J. Helminthol., 81:415 – 420. DOI: 10.1017/S0022149X07868799
Bhure, D.B. (2008): Faunal diversity of Helminth parasites of freshwater fishes of Maharashtra State, India. PhD, thesis, India, Aurangabad: Dr. B. A. M. University
Bhuiyan, A.S., Akter, S., Musa, G.M. (2007): Occurrence of parasites in Labeo rohita (Hamilton) from Rajshahi University. J. Zool. Rajshahi Univ., 26: 31 – 34
Bhure, D.B., Nanware, S.S. (2014): Studies on Prevalence of Cestode Parasites of Freshwater Fish, Channa punctatus. J. Entomol. Zool. Stud., 2(4): 283 – 285
Chubb, J.C. (1977): Seasonal occurrence of helminth in freshwater fishes. Part I Monogenea. In: Dawes, B. (Ed) Advances in Parasitology. London, UK: Academic Press and, pp.133 – 199. DOI: 10.1016/S0065-308X(08)60528-X
Chubb, J.C. (1979): Seasonal occurrence of helminths in freshwater fishes. Part II Trematoda. In: Lumsden, W.H.R.R., Muller, R., Baker, J.R. (Eds) Advances in Parasitology. London, Academic Press and, pp. 142 – 313. DOI: 10.1016/S0065-308X(08)60398-X
Deshmukh V. S. (2015): Biosystematics studies on some Helminth Parasites of freshwater fishes. PhD thesis, India, Nanded: S.R.T.M. University
Eissa, I.A.M. (2002): Parasitic fish infections in Egypt. In: Dar El-Nahdda 1st (Ed) El-Arabia Publishing pp. 52 – 53
Faust, E.C. (1940): Human helminthology: A manual for physicians, sanitarians and medical zoologists. Philadelphia, USA, Lea & Febriger, 744 pp.
Gupta, P.D. (1984): Helminthology in India in 18th – 19th centuries with some remarks on its recent progress. Ind. J. Hist. Sci., 19: 109 – 117
Genc, E., Genc, A.M., Genc, E., Cengizler, I.C., Fatih, M.C. (2005): Seasonal Variation and Pathology Associated with Helminthes Infecting Two Serranids (Teleostei) of Iskenderun Bay (Northeast Mediterranean Sea), Turkey. Tur. J. Fish. Aqu. Sci., 5: 29 – 33
Gibbons, L.M. (2010): Keys to the Nematode Parasites of Vertebrates. Supplementary Volume, Wallingford, UK, CAB International, 416 pp.
Ibiwoye, T.I.I., Balogun, A.M., Ogunsusi, R.A., Agbontale, J.J. (2004): Determination of the infection densities of mudfish Eustrongyloides in Clarias gariepinus and C. anguillaris from Bida flood plain of Nigeria. J. Appl. Sci. Environ. Manage, 8: 39 – 45
Jadhav, B.V., Bhure, D.B. (2006): Population dynamics of Helminth parasites in freshwater fishes from Marathwada region (M. S.) India. Flora and Fauna, 12(2): 143 – 148
Kennedy, C.R., Mine, D.M. (1970): Population biology of the Cestode Proteocephalus torulisus (Bat Sch) in dace Leucisus leucisus (L) of the river Avon. J. Fish. Biol., 1(3): 209 – 219. DOI: 10.1111/j.1095-8649.1969.tb03854.x
Kennedy, C.R. (1977): The regulation of fish parasite populations. In: Esch, G.W. (Ed) In regulation of parasite population. New York: Acedmic press, pp. 61 – 109
Kanth, L.K., Srivastava, L.P. (1987): The occurrence of Metaclinostomum srivastavai (Pandey and Baugh, 1969) (Digenea), Genarchopsis goppo (Tubangui) Ozaki, 1925 (Digenea) and Pallisentis ophiocephali (Rai, 1967) (Acanthocephala) in the fresh water fish, Channa punctatus (Bloch). Ind. J. Parasitol., 11: 155 – 157
Khurshid, I., Ahmad, F. (2012): Gastro-Intestinal Helminth Infection in fishes relative to season from Shallabugh Wetland. Int. J. Recent Sci. Res., 3(4): 270 – 272
Luque, J. L., Poulin, R. (2004): Use of fish as intermediate hosts by helminth parasites: a comparative analysis. Acta Parasitol., 49: 353 – 361
Lizama, M.A.P., Takemoto, R.M., Pavanelli, G.C. (2006): Influence of the seasonal and environmental patterns and host reproduction on the metazoan parasites of Prochilodus lineatus. Braz. Arch. Biol. Technol., 49(4): 611 – 622. DOI: 10.1590/S1516-89132006000500011
Markov, G.S. (1961): Physiology of fish parasites. In: Dogiel, V.A., Petrushevesky, G.K. Polyansky, Yu. I. (Eds) Parasitology of Fishes. London, Edinburg, pp. 117 – 139
Nahar, N. (1988): Prevalence and intensity of helminth parasites of Xenentodon cancila (Hamilton, 1822) in relation to some of its biological aspect. M. Sc. thesis, Dhaka, Eden Mohilla College.
Polyanski, Y.I. (1961): Ecology of parasites of marine fishes. In: Dogiel, V.A., Petrushevski, G.K., Polyanski, Y.I. (Eds) Parasitology of fishes. London, Oliver and Boyd, pp. 48 – 83.
Price, P.W., Clancy, K.M. (1983): Patterns in a number of helminth parasite species in freshwater fishes. J. Parasitol., 69: 449 – 454. DOI: 10.2307/3281352
Pandey, K.C., Agrawal, N. (2008): An encyclopedia of Indian Monogenoidea. New Delhi, Vitasta Publishing Pvt Ltd, pp. 552.
Rohde, K. (1993): Ecology of Marine Parasites, an Introduction to Marine Parasitology. 2nd Edition, CAB International.
Rohde, K., Hayward, C., Heap, M. (1995): Aspects of the ecology of metazoan ectoparasites of marine fishes. Int. J. Parasitol., 25(8): 945 – 970. DOI: 10.1016/0020-7519(95)00015-T
Rego A.A., Chubb J.C., Pavanelli G.C. (1999): Cestodes in South American freshwater teleost fishes: keys to genera and brief description of species. Rev. Brasil. Zool., 16: 299 – 367
Ritika, R.S., Girdhar, G.A., Agrawal, N. (2012): Seasonal variation in monogenoid abundance on Puntius sp. Res. J. Biol., 2: 186 – 190
Sasal, P., Morand, S., Egan, G.U. (1997): Determinants of parasite species richness in Mediterranean marine fish. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser., 149: 61–71. DOI: 10.3354/meps149061
Soota, T.D. (1981): On some nematodes from the unnamed collection of the zoological survey of India, along with the description of a new species. Rec. Zool. Surv. Ind., 79: 55 – 71
Sood, M.L. (1989): Fish nematodes from South Asia. India, Kalyani Publisher, 389 pp.
Tondon, V., Kar, P. K., Das B., Sharma, B., Dorjee, J. (2005): Preliminary survey of gastrointestinal helminth infection in herbivorous livestock of mountainous regions of Bhutan and Arunachal Pradesh. Zoo. Print. J., 20: 1867 – 1868. DOI: 10.11609/JoTT.ZPJ.1227.1867-8
Singhal, P., Gupta, N. (2009): Genarchopsis infestation in relation to host length and sex in freshwater murrel, Channa. Biospectra. 4: 257 – 260
Sheema, S.H., John, M.V., George, P.V. (2015): Seasonal variations in the infection of acanthocephalan parasite Echinorhynchus veli (George & Nadakal) on oriental sole Brachirus orientalis (Bloch & Schneider). J. Aquatic Biol. Fish., 3:115 – 120
Vazzoler, A.E.A.M. (1996): Biologia da reprodução de peixes teleósteos: teoria e prática [Reproductive biology of teleost fish: theory and practice]. Eduem sbi, São Paulo, 169 pp. (In Portuguese)
Vincent, A.G., Font, W.F. (2003): Seasonal and yearly population dynamics of two exotic helminths, Camallanus cotti (Nematoda) and Bothriocephalus acheilognathi (Cestoda), parasitizing exotic fishes in Waianu stream, O’Ahu, Hawaii. J. Parasitol., 89: 756 – 760. DOI: 10.1645/GE-90R
Yamaguti, S. (1958): Systema Helminthum. Vol 1. The Digenetic Trematodes of Vertebrates. Interscience Publishers Inc. New York.
Zelmer, D.A., Arai, H.P. (1998): The contributions of host age and size to the aggregated distribution of parasites in yellow perch, Perca flavescens, from Garner Lake, Alberta Canada. J. Parasitol., 84: 24 – 29. DOI: 10.2307/3284522