Dhaka City has been suffering from many environmental problems including
flooding, water logging and other related problems. Urbanization, which is occurring very fast
and with larger magnitude in Dhaka, is the intrinsic reason behind these problems. High rate of
urbanization causes extensive urban area expansion and as a result canals, wetland and other
water bodies are quickly vanishing from the landscape. This study shows the present physical
condition of the canals; identifies the processes of canal encroachment; represents the
consequences of canal encroachment. 13 canals of 50 were surveyed; local people were
surveyed to identify the impact and processes of encroachment. According to this study, canals
of Dhaka city are under serious threat of extinction and require immediate recovery actions.
Canals are being encroached in various styles and this study identifies five: unauthorized land
filling, illegal construction over canal, expansion of slum, solid waste dumping, taking
advantage of lack of awareness of local people as well as government agencies. However, this
study also discusses the grave consequences of canal encroachment: increasing flood
vulnerability, wane of ground water recharge area and ground water level, collapse of natural
drainage system, loss of local ecology and biodiversity.
Ahmed SU (1986) Dacca: A Study in Urban History and
Development. The Riverdale Company, Glenn Dale.
Alam M and Rabbani MG (2007) Vulnerabilities and
responses to climate change for Dhaka.
Environment and Urbanization. 19: 81–97.
BBS (Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics) (2003)
Population Census 2001, National Report
(Provisional). Ministry of Planning, Government of
BBS (1977) Bangladesh National Population Census
Report 1974. Ministry of Planning, Government of
BBS (1984) Bangladesh Population Census 1981:
Analytical Findings and National Tables. Ministry of
Planning. Government of Bangladesh, Dhaka.
BBS (1991) Preliminary Report on Population Census
1991. Ministry of Planning, Government of
BBS (1997) Bangladesh Population Census 1991, Urban
Area Report. Ministry of Planning, Government of
Brookfield HC et al. (1988) The new great age of
clearance and beyond: What sustainable
development is possible? University of California
Burkart K et al. (2008) Megacity Dhaka: urban
environment, informal settlements and public
health. Geographische Rundschau. 4 (1): 5–10.
Center for Urban Studies (CUS) (2006) Slums of Urban
Bangladesh: Mapping and Census, 2005. University
of Dhaka. Dhaka, Bangladesh.
Chowdhury JU et. al. (2001b) Impact of land use
change upon storm water drainage and wetlands
in the eastern part of Dhaka city. Integrated Water
Flow Model (IWFM), Bangladesh University of
Engineering & Technology (BUET). Dhaka,
Chowdhury JU et. al. (2001a) Impact of 1998 flood on
Dhaka city and performance of flood control
works. Integrated Water Flow Model (IWFM),
Bangladesh University of Engineering & Technology
D’oyly C (1824) Antiquities of Dacca. J. J. Landseer and
Dani AH (1962) Dacca: A Record of Its Changing
Fortunes. Ahmed Hasan Dania & Mrs. S. S. Dani.
Dewan AM and Nishigaki KTM (2006) Flood hazard
delineation in greater Dhaka, Bangladesh using an
Integrated GIS and remote sensing approach.
Geocarto International. 21: 33–38.
Dewan AM & Yamaguchi Y (2008) Using remote
sensing and GIS detect and monitor land use and
land cover change in Dhaka Metropolitan of
Bangladesh during 1960-2005. Springer Science
Flood Action Plan (FAP) 8A (1991) Master Plan Study
for Greater Dhaka Protection Projec. Japan
International Cooperation Agency. Dhaka.
Islam MN (2009) Rainfall and temperature scenario for
Bangladesh. The Open Atmospheric Science
Journal. 3: 93–103.
Islam MS et. al. (2010) Changes in Wetlands in Dhaka
City: Trends and Physico-environmental
Consequences. J. Life Earth Sci. 5: 37-42.
Islam N (1996) Dhaka: from city to mega city.
University of Dhaka. Dhaka, Bangladesh.
JICA (1991) Master plan for greater Dhaka protection
project (Study in Dhaka metropolitan area). Japan
International Cooperation Agency (JICA). Dhaka.
JICA (1992) Master Plan for Greater Dhaka Protection
Project, Flood Action Plan, FAP 8A, Main Report
and Supporting Reports I and II. Flood Plan
Coordination Agency (presently WARPO). Dhaka,
Kamal ASMM and Midorikawa S (2004) GIS-based
geomorphological mapping using remote sensing
data and supplementary geoinformation: A case
study of the Dhaka city area, Bangladesh.
International Journal of Applied Earth Observation
and Geoinformation. 6: 111–125.
Khuda ZRMM (2001) Environmental Degradation
Challenges of the 21st Century. Environmental
Survey and Research Unit. Dhaka. Bangladesh.
Mahmud MS et. al. (2011) Remote Sensing & GIS
Based Spatio-Temporal Change Analysis of
Wetland in Dhaka City, Bangladesh. Journal of
Water Resource and Protection. 3 (Nov. 2011) 781-
Mark, O. et. al. (2001) A mouse GIS study of the
drainage in Dhaka city. Surface Water Modeling
Center (SWMC). Dhaka, Bangladesh.
Miah MM and Bazlee BL (1968) Some aspects of
geomorphology of the Madhupur Tract. Oriental
Geographers. 12: 39-48.
Mitsch WJ, Mitsch RH and Turner RE (1994) Wetlands
of the Old and New Worlds: Ecology and
Management, In Global Wetlands: Old World and
New. Elsevier Science B. V. Amsterdam,
Nakashima S. and Khan MH (1994) A Basic Guide to
Understanding the Environmental Impacts of Rural
Roads on the Wetlands of Bangladesh. Care
Reza, A. N. M. G. and Alam, M. S. 2002. Wetland
transformation in the western part of Dhaka city
(1963–2000). Bhugal Patrika (Journal of
Geography). 21, 23–40.
Siddiqui, K. et al. 2000. Overcoming the Governance
Crisis in Dhaka City. University Press Limited,
Sire LK and Balamurugan G (1991) Urbanization and
urban water problems in Southeast Asia a case of
unsustainable development. Journal of
Environmental Management. 32: 195–209.
Sultana MS, Islam GMT and Islam Z (2009) Pre- and
Post urban Wetland Area in Dhaka City,
Bangladesh: A Remote Sensing and GIS Analysis.
Journal of Water Resource and Protection. 1 (June
2009) 414- 421. doi:10.4236/jwarp.2009.16050.
Taleb MA (2012) Comparative Study of Urban Area
Extension and flood Risk in Dhaka City of
Bangladesh. Global Journal of Human Social
Science Geography & Environmental Geosciences.
Taylor J (1840) Sketch of the Topography and Statistics
of Dacca. Military Orphan Press, Calcutta.
UN-HABITAT. 2008. State of the World’s Cities 2008/9-
Harmonious Cities. UN-HABITAT.
United Nations (2013) World Urbanization Prospect:
The 2012 Revision. Department of Economic and
Social Affairs, Population Division.
WASA (1991) Dhaka Regional Groundwater and
Subsidence Model. Dhaka Water Supply and
Sewerage Authority (WASA). Dhaka, Bangladesh.