1 University of Agriculture in Krakow, Faculty of Forestry, Institute of Forest Resources Management, Department of Forest Management, Geomatics and Forest Economics – Laboratory of Geomatics, Aleja 29 Listopada 46, 31-425 Krakow, Poland
2 University of Agriculture in Krakow, Faculty of Forestry, Institute of Forest Ecology and Silviculture, Department of Forest Ecology and Reclamation, Aleja 29 Listopada 46, 31-425 Kraków, Poland
The quarrying industry is changing the local landscape, forming deep open pits and spoil heaps in close proximity to them, especially lignite mines. The impact can include toxic soil material (low pH, heavy metals, oxidations etc.) which is the basis for further reclamation and afforestation. Forests that stand on spoil heaps have very different growth conditions because of the relief (slope, aspect, wind and rainfall shadows, supply of solar energy, etc.) and type of soil that is deposited. Airborne laser scanning (ALS) technology deliver point clouds (XYZ) and derivatives as raster height models (DTM, DSM, nDSM=CHM) which allow the reception of selected 2D and 3D forest parameters (e.g. height, base of the crown, cover, density, volume, biomass, etc). The automation of ALS point cloud processing and integrating the results into GIS helps forest managers to take appropriate decisions on silvicultural treatments in areas with failed plantations (toxic soil, droughts on south-facing slopes; landslides, etc.) or as regular maintenance. The ISOK country-wide project ongoing in Poland will soon deliver ALS point cloud data which can be successfully used for the monitoring and management of many thousands of hectares of destroyed post-industrial areas which according to the law, have to be afforested and transferred back to the State Forest.
Axelsson, P. (2000). DEM generation from laser scanner data using adaptive TIN models. International Archives of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, Vol. XXXIII/4B, 110–117.
Drzewiecki, W., Wezyk, P., Pierzchalski, M. and Szafrańska, B. (2014). Quantitative and qualitative assessment of soil erosion risk in Malopolska (Poland), supported by an object-based analysis of high-resolution satellite images. Pure and Applied Geophysics, 171(6), 867-895. DOI: 10.1007/s00024-013-0669-7
Eysn, L., Hollaus, M., Schadauer, K. and Pfeifer, N. (2012). Forest Delineation Based on Airborne LIDAR Data. Remote Sensing, 4(3), 762-783.
Hejmanowska, B. (2006). The use of remote sensing in monitoring the degraded areas by mining activities, New Mining, No. 1, www.nowegornictwo.pl
Hyyppä H., Yu X., Hyyppä J., Kaartinen H., Kaasalainen S., Honkovaara E. and Ronnholm P. (2005). Factors affecting quality of DTM generation in forested areas. The International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences, 36 (3/W), 85-90.
Koch, B., Heyder, U., Straub, Ch. and Weinacker, H. (2006). 3D Data for Forest and Environmental Planning. Int. Workshop “3D Remote Sensing in Forestry”, Vienna, Austria, 1–14.
Kraus, K. and Pfeifer N. (1998). Determination of terrain models in wooded areas with airborne laser scanner data. ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, 53(4), 193–203.
Maltamo, M., Naesset, E. and Vauhkonen, J. (2014). Forestry Applications of Airborne Laser Scanning. Concepts and Case Studies, Springer, pp. 464
McGaughey, R. J. (2012). FUSION/LDV: Software for LiDAR data analysis and visualization. Software Manual. FUSION – version. 3.10. USDA Forest Service. Pacific Northwest Research Station.
Næsset, E. (1997). Determination of mean tree height of forest stands using airborne laser scanner data. ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, 52 (2), 49–56.
Pietrzykowski, M. and Krzaklewski, W. (2007). An assessment of energy efficiency in reclamation to forest. Ecological Engineering, 30, 341–8.
Sačkov, I. and Kardoš, M. (2014). Forest delineation based on LiDAR data and vertical accuracy of the terrain model in forest and non-forest area. Annals of Forest Research, 57(1), 119-136
Szostak M., Wezyk, P. and Tompalski, P. (2014). Aerial Orthophoto and Airborne Laser Scanning as Monitoring Tools for Land Cover Dynamics: A Case Study from the Milicz Forest District (Poland). Pure and Applied Geophysics, 171(6), 857-866, DOI: 10.1007/s00024-013-0668-8
Szostak, M. & Wezyk, P. (2013). GNNS measurements in forest environment using various receivers and measurement modes. Archive of Photogrammetry, Photogrammetry, Cartography and Remote Sensing, 25, 217-231.
Wezyk, P. (2008). The LiDAR point cloud data-based forest canopy modelling. Archive of Photogrammetry, Photogrammetry, Cartography and Remote Sensing, 18 b, pp. 685–695.
Wezyk, P. (2012). The integration of the Terrestrial and Airborne Laser Scanning technologies in the semi-automated process of retrieving selected trees and forest stand parameters. Ambiencia, Vol. 8. 4, Unicentro, Parana, Brasil,533–548.
Wezyk, P., Borowiec, N., Szombara, S.M and Wanczyk, R. (2008). Generation of digital surface and terrain models of the Tatras mountains based on airbone laser scanning (ALS) point cloud. Archive of Photogrammetry, Photogrammetry, Cartography and Remote Sensing, 18 b, 651–661.
Wezyk, P. and Krzaklewski, W. (1999). Opportunities, problems and results of the use of digital photogrammetry techniques, GPS and GIS in land reclamation sand mine. Conference: Opencast mining – Environment – Reclamation – with particular regard to KWB Belchatow, Belchatow, 8-9. 06.1999, 147–154.
Wezyk, P., Szostak, M. and Tompalski, P. (2013). Use of Airborne Laser Scanning Data for a Revision and Update of a Digital Forest Map and its Descriptive Database: A Case Study from the Tatra National Park. The Carpathians: Integrating Nature and Society Towards Sustainability, Part IV (pp. 615–627). Springer Berlin Heidelberg, DOI: 10.1007/978-3-642-12725-0_43
Wezyk, P., Tompalski, P., de Kok, R., Szostak, M. and Kukawski, M. (2010). Method of the tree number estimation in the pine stand using ALS data and true orthoimages. Sylwan, 154 (11), 773–782.
White, J.C., Wulder, M.A., Varhola, A., Vastaranta, M., Coops, N.C., Cook, B.D., Pitt, D. and Woods, M. (2013). A best practices guide for generating forest inventory attributes from airborne laser scanning data using the area-based approach. Information Report FI-X-10. Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, Canadian Wood Fibre Centre, Pacific Forestry Centre, Victoria, BC. pp.50
Witkowski, J. and Dmochowska, H. (2013). Statistical Yearbook of the Republic of Poland 2012. Warszawa: Central Statistical Office.
Wójcik, J. and Krzaklewski, W. (2009). Forestation as the Method of the Remediation of Soilless Areas of the Lignite Mine Turow. Gospodarka Surowcami Mineralnymi, 25(3), 171-187.
Yu, X., Hyyppä, J., Kaartinen, H. & Maltamo, M. (2004). Automatic detection of harvested trees and determination of forest growth using airborne laser scanning. Remote Sensing of Environment, 90, 451–462.