Oligocene turbidite fans of the Dukla Basin: New age data from the calcareous nannofossils and paleoenvironmental conditions (Cergowa beds, Polish–Slovakian borderland)

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Calcareous nannofossils found in the Cergowa beds of the Dukla and Fore-Dukla tectonic units in the Outer Carpathians indicate a time of deposition in the range of the NP23–NP24 nannoplankton zones of the Lower Oligocene. Nannoplankton assemblages reflect the paleoecological changes at the Eocene–Oligocene transition from: (i) a greenhouse to an icehouse climate; (ii) brackish to normal salinity suggesting open sea conditions, which were controlled by the Paratethys Basin closure followed by opening and connection with the Tethyan Ocean. The absence of nannofossils of NP25 zone, but their presence in the tectonic windows between 40 and 80 km to the west, shows that deposition of the Cergowa beds in the western part of the basin lasted longer than in the east. Occurrences of nannofossils indicating zones NP16 and NP21, found in the uppermost mudstone-rich parts of studied sections, may prove the remobilization and redeposition of sediments of this stratigraphic age. Potentially, eroded material could be derived from some of the following lithostratigraphic units: NP16 — the Hieroglyphic beds, Przybyszów sandstones and Upper variegated shales; NP21 — the Globigerina marls, Mszanka sandstones and sub-Chert marls and shales and/or fine-grained equivalent of these units. Reworked specimens derived from the older Mesozoic strata occur occasionally in various samples.

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