Miocene paleogeography and biostratigraphy of the Slovenj Gradec Basin: a marine corridor between the Mediterranean and Central Paratethys

Open access


The Miocene evolution of the area transitional from the Eastern Alps to the Pannonian Basin System was studied through the paleogeographic evolution of the Slovenj Gradec Basin in northern Slovenia. It is based on mapping, section logging, nannoplankton biostratigraphy, and petrography. The results are correlated with the lithological column of the borehole MD-1/05. The evolution of the basin is connected with the development of the Pannonian Basin System, and the global 3rd order cycles, which influenced the connection with the Mediterranean Sea. Sedimentation started in the Karpatian in a fluvial to lacustrine environment and terminated at the end of the Early Badenian. During this period, three transgression–regression cycles were recorded. The first transgression occurred in the Karpatian and corresponds to the TB 2.2. cycle. The sediments reflect proximity of the hinterland. After a short break in sedimentation, the Early Badenian deposition followed. It marks the second transgression into the SGB, the first Badenian, correlated with the TB 2.3 cycle. There are signs of a transitional environment, which evolved to marine in advanced stages. At the high-stand system tract, the sea flooded the entire Slovenj Gradec Basin. Subsequent reduced quantity and diversity of the microfossils marks the onset of the second regression stage. It is followed by the third transgression, the second in the Badenian, correlated with the TB 2.4 cycle. The late Early Badenian deposition continued in the lower-energy, though occasionally still turbulent environment. Silty sediments with upward increasing content of organic matter indicate shallowing of the basin, until its final diminishing. Layers of fresh-water coal already bear witness to the existence of restricted swamps. After the Early Badenian, the area of the Slovenj Gradec Basin became dry land, exposed to erosion.

Anthonissen E. & Ogg J.G. 2012: Appendix 3. Cenozoic and Cretaceous biochronology of planktonic foraminifera and calcareous nannofossils. In: Gradstein F.M., Ogg J.G., Schmitz M.D. & Ogg G.M (Eds.): The Geologic Time Scale 2012. Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1083–1127.

Aubry M.P. 1992: Late Paleogene calcareous nannoplankton evolution: a tale of climatic deterioration. In: Prothero D.R., Berggren W.A. (Eds.): Eocene-Oligocene Climatic and Biotic Evolution. Princeton University Press, 272–309.

Auer G., Piller W.E. & Harzhauser M. 2014: High-resolution calcareous nannoplankton palaeoecology as a proxy for small-scale environmental changes in the Early Miocene. Mar. Micropaleontol. 111, 53–65.

Avanić R. 1997: Facies analysis of Middle Miocene on southern slopes of Mt. Medvednica. Unpubl. MSc Thesis, University of Zagreb (in Croatian).

Báldi T. 1989: Tethys and Paratethys through Oligocene times. Remarks to an comment. Geol. Carpath. 40, 1, 85–99. Beck-Mannagetta P. 1952: Zur Geologie und Palaontologie des unteren Lavanttal. Jahrb. Geol. Bundesanst. 95, 1–102.

Bistricic A. & Jenko K. 1985: Area No. 224 b1: Transtethyan Trench “Corridor”, YU. In: Steininger F.F., Senes J., Kleemann K. & Rögl F. (Eds.): Neogene of the Mediterranean Tethys and Paratethys. Stratigraphic correlation tables and sediment distribution maps. University of Vienna, Vienna, 1, 72–73.

Brlek M., Špišić M., Brčić V., Mišur I., Kurečić T., Miknić M., Avanić R., Vrsaljko D. & Slovenec D. 2016: Mid-Miocene (Badenian) transgression on Mesozoic basement rocks in the Mt. Medvednica area of northern Croatia. Facies 62, 1–21.

Buser 2009: Geological map of Slovenia 1: 250,000. Geological survey of Slovenia.

Csontos L. 1995: Cenozoic tectonic evolution of the Intra-Carpa-thian area: a review. Acta Vulcanol. 7, 1–13.

Csontos L. & Nagymarosy A. 1998: The Mid-Hungarian line: A zone of repeated tectonic inversions. Tectonophysics 297, 51–71.

Csontos L., Nagymarosy A., Kováč M. & Horváth F. 1992: Tertiary evolution of the intra-Carpathian area: a model. Tectonophysics 208, 221–241.

Ćorić S. & Rögl F. 2004: Roggendorf-1 borehole, a key section for Lower Badenian transgressions and the stratigraphic position of the Grund Formation. Geol. Carpath. 55, 2, 165–178.

Ćorić S. & Hohenegger J. 2008: Quantitative analyses of calcareous nannoplankton assemblages from the Baden-Sooss section (Middle Miocene of Vienna Basin, Austria). Geol. Carpath. 59, 5, 447-460.

Ćorić S., Pavelić D., Rögl F., Mandic O. & Vrabac S. 2009: Revised Middle Miocene datum for initial marine flooding of North Croatian Basins (Pannonian Basin System, Central Paratethys). Geol. Croat. 62, 31–43.

Ćorić S., Trajanova M. & Lapanje A. 2011: Lower/Middle Miocene deposits from the Slovenj Gradec basin (NW Slovenia). In: Kyška Pipík R., Starek D. & Staňová S. (Eds.): The 4th International Workshop on the Neogene from the Central and South-eastern Europe: abstracts and guide of excursion. Faculty of Natural Sciences, Matej Bel University, Banská Bystrica, 8.

Ebner F. & Sachsenhofer R.F. 1995: Palaeogeography, subsidence and thermal history of the Neogene Styrian Basin (Pannonian basin system, Austria). Tectonophysics 242, 133–150.

Flower B.P. & Kennett J.P. 1993: Middle Miocene ocean-climate transition: High-resolution oxygen and carbon isotopic records from Deep Sea Drilling Project Site 588A, southwest Pacific. Paleooceanography 8, 4, 811–843.

Fodor L., Uhrin A., Palotás K., Selmeczi I., Tóthné Makk Á., Rižnar I., Trajanova M., Rifelj H., Jelen B., Budai T., Koroknai B., Mozetič S., Nádor A. & Lapanje A. 2011: Geological and structural model of the Mura–Zala Basin and its rims as a basis for hydrogeological analysis. A Magy. Állami Földtani Intézet Évi Jelentése, 47–92 (in Hungarian).

Fornaciari E., Di Stefano A., Rio D. & Negri A. 1996: Middle Miocene calcareous nannofossil biostratigraphy in the Mediterranean region. Micropaleontology 42, 1, 37–63.

Frisch W., Kuhlemann J., Dunkl I. & Brügel A. 1998: Palinspastic reconstruction and topographic evolution of the Eastern Alps during late Tertiary tectonic extrusion. Tectonophysics 297, 1–15.

Gostiša B., Hamrla M., Kosmač S, Arko A., Hoznar A. & Jelen F. 1984: Coalmines Holmec and Leše. Reopening study. Internal report of the Geological survey of Slovenia, 162 (in Slovenian).

Gross M., Fritz I., Piller W.E., Soliman A., Harzhauser M., Hubmann B., Moser B., Scholger R., Suttner T.J. & Bojar H.P. 2007: The Neogene of the Styrian Basin — Guide to excursions. Joannea Geol. Paläont. 193, 117–193.

Haq B.U. 1980: Biogeographic history of Miocene calcareous nannoplankton and paleocaenography of the Atlantic Ocean. Micro­paleontology 26, 414–443.

Haq B.U., Hardenbol J. & Vail P.R. 1988: Mesozoic and Cenozoic chronostratigraphy and eustatic cycles. In: Wilgus C.K., Hastings B.S., Posamentier H., van Wagoner J., Ross C.A. & Kendall C.G.St.C. (Eds.): Sea-level changes: An integrated approach. SEPM Spec. Publ. 42, 71–108.

Hardenbol J., Thierry J., Farley M.B., Jacquin T., de Graciansky P.C. & Vail P.R. 1998: Mesozoic and Cenozoic sequence chronostratigraphic framework of European Basins. In: de Graciansky P.C., Hardenbol J., Jacquin T. & Vail P.R. (Eds.): Mesozoic and Cenozoic sequence stratigraphy of European Basins. SEPM Spec. Publ. 60, 3–13.

Harzhauser M. & Piller W.E. 2007: Benchmark data of a changing sea — Palaeogeography, Palaeobiogeography and events in the Central Paratethys during the Miocene. Palaeogeogr. Palaeoclimatol. Palaeoecol. 253, 8–31.

Harzhauser M., Peckmann J., Birgel D., Draganits E., Mandic O., Theobalt D. & Huemer J. 2013: Stromatolites in the Paratethys Sea during the Middle Miocene climate transition as witness of the Badenian salinity crisis. Facies 60, 429–444.

Hasenhüttl C., Kraljic M., Sachsenhofer R.F., Jelen B. & Rieger R. 2001: Source rocks and hydrocarbon generation in Slovenia (Mura Depression, Pannonian Basin). Mar. Pet. Geol. 18, 115–132.

Hinterlechner-Ravnik A. & Trajanova M. 2009: Metamorphic rocks. In: Pleničar M., Ogorelec B. & Novak M. (Eds.): The geology of Slovenia. Geological survey of Slovenia, Ljubljana, 69–90.

Hohenegger J., Rögl F., Ćorić S., Pervesler P., Lirer F., Roetzel R., Scholger R. & Stingl K. 2009: The Styrian Basin: A key to the Middle Miocene (Badenian/Langhian) Central Paratethys transgressions. Austrian J. Earth Sci. 102, 102–132.

Hohenegger J., Ćorić S. & Wagreich M. 2014: Timing of the middle miocene badenian stage of the central paratethys. Geol. Carpath. 65, 1, 55–66.

Holcová K., Doláková N., Nehyba S. & Vacek F. 2018: Timing of Langhian bioevents in the Carpathian Foredeep and northern Pannonian Basin in relation to oceanographic, tectonic and climatic processes. Geol. Quarterly 62, 1, 3–17.

Horváth F. 1993: Towards a mechanical model for the formation of the Pannonian basin. Tectonophysics 226, 333–357.

Horváth F. 1995: Phases of compression during the evolution of the Pannonian Basin and its bearing on hydrocarbon exploration. Mar. Pet. Geol. 12, 837–844.

Horváth F. & Royden H.L. 1981: Mechanism for the formation of the intra-Carpathian basins: a review. Earth Sci. Rev. 1, 3–4, 307–316.

Huismans R.S., Podladchikov Y.Y. & Cloetingh S.A.P.L. 2001: The Pannonian basin: Dynamic modelling of the transition from passive to active rifting. Stephan Mueller Spec. Publ. Ser. 3, 41–63.

Ivančič K., Trajanova M., Skaberne D. & Šmuc A. 2018: Provenance of the Miocene Slovenj Gradec Basin sedimentary fill, Western Central Paratethys. Sediment Geol. 375, 256–267.

Jelen B., Rifelj H., Skaberne D., Poljak M. & Kralj P. 2008: Slovenian Paratethys basins. In: McCann T. (Ed.): The geology of Central Europe, Vol 2. Mesozoic and Cenozoic, Part 17 Paleogene and Neogene. Geol. Soc. London, London, 1098–1102.

Kovačić M. & Pavelić D. 2017: Neogene stratigraphy of the Slavonian mountains. In: Kovačić M., Wacha L., Horvat M. (Eds.): Fieldtrip Guidebook. 7NCSEE Workshop. Croatian Geological Societiy, Velika, 5–9.

Kováč M., Nagymarosy A., Oszczypko N., Csontos L., Slaczka A., Marunteanu M., Matenco L. & Márton E. 1998: Palinspastic reconstruction of the Carpathian-Pannonian region during the Miocene. In: Rakús M. (Ed.): Geodynamic development of the Western Carpathians. Geol. Surv. Slovak Rep., Bratislava, 189–217.

Kováč M., Hudáčková N., Halásová E., Kováčová M., Holcová K., Oszczypko-Clowes M., Báldi K., Less G., Nagymarosy A., Ruman A., Klučiar T. & Jamrich M. 2017a: The Central Paratethys palaeoceanography : a water circulation model based on microfossil proxies, climate, and changes of depositional environment. Acta Geol. Slovaca 9, 75–114.

Kováč M., Márton E., Oszczypko N., Vojtko R., Hók J., Králiková S., Plašienka D., Klučiar T., Hudáčková N. & Oszczypko-Clowes M. 2017b: Neogene palaeogeography and basin evolution of the Western Carpathians, Northern Pannonian domain and adjoining areas. Global Planet Change 155, 133–154.

Kováč M., Halásová E., Hudáčková N., Holcová K., Hyžný M., Jamrich M. & Ruman A. 2018: Towards better correlation of the Central Paratethys regional time scale with the standard geological time scale of the Miocene Epoch. Geol. Carpath. 69, 3, 283–300.

Kralj P., Vrabec M., Trajanova M., Ivančič K. & Mencin Gale E. 2018: Geological evolution of Cenozoic sedimentary basins in the Velenje region. In: Novak M., Markič M., Petkovšek A. & Trajanova T. (Eds): 5. slovenski geološki kongres, field trips guidebook. Geological survey of Slovenia, Ljubljana, 45-60.

Lohmann G.P. & Carlson J.J. 1981: Oceanographic significance of Pacific late Miocene calcareous nannoplankton. Mar. Micropaleontol. 6, 553–579.

Lorinczi P. & Houseman G. 2010: Geodynamical models of lithospheric deformation, rotation and extension of the Pannonian Basin of Central Europe. Tectonophysics 492, 73–87.

Martini E. 1971 (Ed.): Standard Tertiary and Quaternary calcareous nannoplankton zonation. Proceedings of the II Planktonic Conference. Tecnoscienza, Roma, 739–785.

Márton E., Trajanova M., Zupančič N. & Jelen B. 2006: Formation, uplift and tectonic integration of a Periadriatic intrusive complex (Pohorje, Slovenia) as reflected in magnetic parameters and palaeomagnetic directions. Geophys. J. Int. 167, 3, 1148–1159.

Melinte-Dobrinescu M. & Brustur T. 2008: Oligocene-Lower Miocene events in Romania. Acta Palaeontol. Romaniae 6, 203–215.

Mioč P. 1978: Explanatory notes for the sheet Slovenj Gradec. Basic geological map of the SFRJ 1:100,000. Federal Geol. Surv., Belgrade, 1–74 (in Slovenian).

Mioč P. & Žnidarčič M. 1976: Basic geological map of the SFRJ 1:100,000, sheet Slovenj Gradec (Cartographic material). Federal Geol. Surv., Belgrade (in Slovenian).

Mioč P. & Žnidarčič M. 1983: Explanatory notes for the sheet Ravne na Koroškem. Basic geological map of the SFRJ 1:100,000. Federal Geol. Surv., Belgrade, 1–69 (in Slovenian).

Mioč P. & Žnidarčič, M. 1989: Explanatory notes for the sheet Maribor and Leibniz. Basic geological map of the SFRJ 1:100,000. Federal Geol. Surv., Belgrade, 1–69.

Mioč P. & Žnidarčič M. 2001: Geological structure overview of the marginal part of the Pannonian Basin in Slovenia. In: Horvat A. (Ed.): 15th Meeting of Slovenian Geologists. Faculty of Natural Sciences and Enggineering, 64–65 (in Slovenian).

Okada H. & McIntyre A. 1979: Seasonal distribution of the modern Coccolithophores in the western North Atlantic Ocean. Marine Biology 54, 319-328.

Otoničar B. & Cimerman F. 2006: Facial analysis, biostratigraphy, and deposition model of Middle Miocene carbonate rocks, between the Krško village, and Obrežje. In: Režun, B., Eržen U., Petrič M. & Gantar I. (eds.): Zbornik povzetkov. 2nd Slovenian Geological Congress, Idrija, 71 (in Slovenian).

Pavelić D. 2005: 9. Cyclicity in the evolution of the neogene north Croatian basin (Pannonian Basin System). In: Van Loon A.J. (Ed): Cyclic development of sedimentary basins. Dev. Sedimentol., 273–284.

Pavelić D. & Kovačić M. 1999: Lower Miocene Alluvial Deposits of the Požeška Mt . (Pannonian Basin, Northern Croatia): Cycles, Megacycles and Tectonic Implications. Geol. Croat. 52, 67–76.

Pavelić D. & Kovačić M. 2018: Sedimentology and stratigraphy of the Neogene rift-type North Croatian Basin (Pannonian Basin System, Croatia): A review. Mar. Petr. Geol. 91, 455–469.

Perch-Nielsen K. 1985: Cenozoic calcareous nannofossils. In: Bolli H.M., Saunders J.B. & Perch-Nielsen K. (Eds.): Plankton stratigraphy. Cambridge University Press, 427–554.

Piller W.E., Egger H., Erhart C.W., Gross M., Harzhauser M., Hubmann B., Van Husen D., Krenmayr H.-G., Krystyn L., Lein R., Lukeneder A., Mandl G.W., Rögl F., Roetzel R., Rupp C., Schnabel W., Schönlaub H.P., Summesberger H., Wagreich M. & Wessely G. 2004: Die stratigraphische Tabelle von Österreich (sedimentäre Schichtfolgen). — 1 tab. Kommision für die paläontologische und stratigraphische Erforschung Österreichs der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften und Österreichische Stratigraphische Kommission, Wien.

Piller W.E., Harzhauser M. & Mandic O. 2007: Miocene Central Paratethys stratigraphy – current status and future directions. Stratigraphy 4, 151–168.

Poljak M., Mikuž V., Trajanova M., Hajek-Tadesse V., Miknić M., Jurkovšek B. & Šoster A. 2016: Badenian and Sarmatian beds in excavation pit for the hydroelectric power plant Brežice, Slovenia. Geologija 59, 2, 127–154 (in Slovenian).

Rasser M.W., Harzhauser M., Anistratenko O.Y., Anistratenko V.V., Bassi D., Belak M., Berger J.-P., Bianchini G., Čičić S., Ćosović V., Doláková N., Drobne K., Filipescu S., Gürs K., Hladilová Š., Hrvatović H., Jelen B., Kasiński J.R., Kováč M., Kralj P., Marjanac T., Márton E., Mietto P., Moro A., Nagymarosy A., Nebelsick J. H., Nehyba S., Ogorelec B., Oszczypko N., Pavelić D., Pavlovec R., Pavšič J., Petrova P., Piwocki M., Poljak M., Pugliese N., Redžepović R., Rifelj H., Roetzel R., Skaberne D., Sliva Ľ., Standke G., Tunis G., Vass D., Wagreich M. & Wesselingh F. 2008: Palaeogene and Neogene. In: McCann T. (Ed.): The Geology of Central Europe, Volume 2: Mesozoic and Cenozoic. Geol. Soc. London, London, 1031–1139.

Reischenbacher D., Rifelj H., Sachsenhofer R.F., Jelen B., Ćorić S., Gross M. & Reichenbacher B. 2007: Early Badenian paleoenvironment in the Lavanttal Basin (Mühdorf Formation; Austria): Evidence from geochemistry and paleontology. Austrian J. Earth Sci. 100, 202–229.

Rižnar I., Miletić D., Verbič T. & Horvat A. 2002: Middle Miocene sediments on the northern part of Gorjanci between Čatež and Kostanjevica (SE Slovenia). Geologija 45, 2, 531–536,

Rögl F. 1998: Palaeogeographic Considerations for Mediterranean and Paratethys Seaways (Oligocene to Miocene). Ann. des Naturhist. Mus. Wien. 99A, 279–310.

Rögl F., Spezzaferri S. & Ćorić S. 2002: Micropaleontology and biostratigraphy of the Karpatian-Badenian transition (Early– Middle Miocene boundary) in Austria (Central Paratethys). Cour. Forsch.­Inst. Senckenb. 237, 47–67.

Rögl F., Ćorić S., Hohenegger J., Pervesler P., Roetzel R., Scholger R., Spezzaferri S. & Stingl K. 2007: Cyclostratigraphy and Transgressions at the Early/Middle Miocene (Karpatian/Badenian) Boundary in the Austrian Neogene Basins (Central Paratethys). Scr. Fac. Sci. Nat. Univ. Masaryk. Brun. 36, 7–13.

Royden L. H. 1988: Late Cenozoic tectonics of the Pannonian basin system. In: Royden, H.L., Horváth, F. (Eds.): The Pannonian Basin: A Study in Basin Evolution. Am. Assoc. Pet. Geol. Mem. 27–48.

Royden L.H., Horváth, F. & Burchfiel B.C. 1982. Transform faulting, extension, and subduction in the Carpathian Pannonian region. Geol. Soc. Am. Bull. 93, 717–725.

Royden L., Horváth F., Nagymarosy A. & Stegena L. 1983: Evolution of the Pannonian basin system 2; subsidence and thermal history. Tectonics 2, 1, 91–137.

Sant K., Palcu D.V., Mandic O. & Krijgsman W. 2017: Changing seas in the Early–Middle Miocene of Central Europe: a Mediterranean approach to Paratethyan stratigraphy. Terra Nova 1–9.

Sachsenhofer R.F. 1996: The Neogene Styrian Basin: An overview. Mitteilungen der Gesellschaft der Bergbaustudenten Österreichs 41, 19–32.

Schmid S. M., Bernoulli D., Fügenschuh B., Matenco L., Schefer S., Schuster R., Tischler M. & Ustaszewski K. 2008: The Alpine–Carpathian–Dinaridic orogenic system: correlation and evolution of tectonic units. Swiss J. Geosci. 101, 139–183.

Shcherbinina E. 2010: Response of early Paleogene nannofossils to periodically increased nutrient availability in the NE Peri-Tethys. Geophys. Res. Abstracts 12, EGU2010-13597.

Shevenell A.E., Kennett J.P. & Lea D.W. 2004: Middle Miocene southern ocean cooling and antarctic cryosphere expansion. Science 305, 1766–1770.

Spezzaferri S., Ćorić S., Hohenegger J. & Rögl F. 2002: Basin-scale paleobiogeography and paleoecology: an example from Karpatian (Latest Burdigalian) benthic and planktonic foraminifera and calcareous nannoplankton from the Central Paratethys. Geobios, Mémoir spécial. 24, 241–256.

Spezzaferri S., Rögl F., Ćorić S. & Hohenegger J. 2004: Paleoenvironmental changes and agglutinated foraminifera across the Karpatian/Badenian (Early/Middle Miocene) boundary in the Styrian Basin (Austria, Central Paratethys). In: Buík M. & Kaminski M. (Ed.): Proceedings of the Sixth International Workshop on Agglutinated Foraminifera. Grzybowski Foundation Special Publication 8, 423–459.

Stingl K. 1994: Depositional environment and sedimentary facies of the basinal sediments in the Eibiswalder Bucht (Radl Formation and Lower Eibiswald Beds), Miocene Western Styrian Basin, Austria. Geol. Rundsch. 83, 811–821.

Strauss P., Harzhause, M., Hinsch R. & Wagreich M. 2006: Sequence stratigraphy in a classic pull-apart basin (Neogene, Vienna Basin). A 3D seismic based integrated approach. Geol. Carpath. 57, 185–197.

Tari G., Horváth F. & Rumpler J. 1992. Styles of extension in the Pannonian Basin. Tectonophysics 208, 203–219.

Tari G., Báldi T. & Báldi-Beke M. 1993: Paleogene retroarc flexural basin beneath the Neogene Pannonian Basin: A geodynamic model. Tectonophysics 226, 433–455.

Trajanova M. 2011: Detached part of the Central Paratethys in the Slovenj Gradec basin, northern Slovenia. 17th Meeting of the Association of European Geological Societies. The Serbian Geological Society, Belgrade, 265.

Trajanova M. 2013: Age of the Pohorje Mountains magmatism; new view on the origin of the Pohorje tectonic block. PhD thesis. Univ. of Ljubljana (in Slovenian).

Vass D., Konečný V. & Šefara J. 1979: Geology of Ipeľská kotlina (depression) and Krupinská planina Mts. Geologický Ústav Dionýza Štúra, Bratislava, 277 p (in Slovak).

Vass D., Pereszlényi M., Milička J. & Bartek V. 1999: Characteristics of the Bukovinka Formation coal and its comparison with the coal of the Pôtor Mb. of Salgótarján Formation. Mineralia Slovaca 31, 555–560 (in Slovak).

Vrabec M., Šmuc A., Pleničar M. & Buser S. 2009: Geological evolution of Slovenia — an overview. In: Pleničar M., Ogorelec B., Novak M. (Eds.): The Geology of Slovenia. Geological survey of Slovenia, Ljubljana, 23–40.

Winter A., Jordan R. & Roth P. 1994: Biogeography of living Coccolithophores in ocean waters. In: Winter A. & Siesser W. (Eds.): Coccolithophores. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 13–37.

Young J.R. 1998: Neogene nannofossils. In: Bown P.R. (Ed.) Calcareous Nannofossil Biostratigraphy. Kluwer Academic Publications, Dordrecht, 225–265.

Geologica Carpathica

The Journal of Geological Institute of Slovak Academy of Sciences

Journal Information

IMPACT FACTOR 2017: 1.169
5-year IMPACT FACTOR: 1.431

CiteScore 2017: 1.26

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2017: 0.551
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2017: 0.836


All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 67 67 9
PDF Downloads 66 66 9