Accessory minerals and evolution of tin-bearing S-type granites in the western segment of the Gemeric Unit (Western Carpathians)

Open access


The S-type accessory mineral assemblage of zircon, monazite-(Ce), fluorapatite and tourmaline in the cupolas of Permian granites of the Gemeric Unit underwent compositional changes and increased variability and volume due to intensive volatile flux. The extended S-type accessory mineral assemblage in the apical parts of the granite resulted in the formation of rare-metal granites from in-situ differentiation and includes abundant tourmaline, zircon, fluorapatite, monazite-(Ce), Nb–Ta–W minerals (Nb–Ta rutile, ferrocolumbite, manganocolumbite, ixiolite, Nb–Ta ferberite, hübnerite), cassiterite, topaz, molybdenite, arsenopyrite and aluminophosphates. The rare-metal granites from cupolas in the western segment of the Gemeric Unit represent the topaz–zinnwaldite granites, albitites and greisens. Zircon in these evolved rare-metal Li–F granite cupolas shows a larger xenotime-(Y) component and heterogeneous morphology compared to zircons from deeper porphyritic biotite granites. The zircon Zr/Hfwt ratio in deeper rooted porphyritic granite varies from 29 to 45, where in the differentiated upper granites an increase in Hf content results in a Zr/Hfwt ratio of 5. The cheralite component in monazite from porphyritic granites usually does not exceed 12 mol. %, however, highly evolved upper rare-metal granites have monazites with 14 to 20 mol. % and sometimes > 40 mol. % of cheralite. In granite cupolas, pure secondary fluorapatite is generated by exsolution of P from P-rich alkali feldspar and high P and F contents may stabilize aluminophosphates. The biotite granites contain scattered schorlitic tourmaline, while textural late-magmatic tourmaline is more alkali deficient with lower Ca content. The differentiated granites contain also nodular and dendritic tourmaline aggregations. The product of crystallization of volatile-enriched granite cupolas are not only variable in their accessory mineral assemblage that captures high field strength elements, but also in numerous veins in country rocks that often contain cassiterite and tourmaline. Volatile flux is documented by the tetrad effect via patterns of chondrite normalized REEs (T1,3 value 1.46). In situ differentiation and tectonic activity caused multiple intrusive events of fluid-rich magmas rich in incompatible elements, resulting in the formation of rare-metal phases in granite roofs. The emplacement of volatile-enriched magmas into upper crustal conditions was followed by deeper rooted porphyritic magma portion undergoing second boiling and re-melting to form porphyritic granite or granite-porphyry during its ascent.

Aseri A.A., Linnen R.L., Che X.D., Thibault Y. & Holtz F. 2015: Effects of fluorine on the solubilities of Nb, Ta, Zr and Hf minerals in highly fluxed water-saturated haplogranite melts. Ore Geol. Rev. 64, 736–746.

Badanina E.V., Trumbull R.B., Dulski P., Wiedenbeck M., Veksler I.V. & Syritso L.F. 2006: The behaviour of rare-earth and lithophile trace elements in rare-metal granites: a study of fluorite, melt inclusions and host rocks from the Khangilay complex, Transbaikalia, Russia. Can. Mineral. 44, 667–692.

Bajaník Š., Hanzel V., Ivanička J., Mello J., Pristaš J., Reichwalder P., Snopko L., Vozár J. & Vozárová A 1983: Explanation to geological map 1:50,000 — Slovak Ore Mountains Eastern part. Dionýz Štúr Inst. Geol. Monogr., 1–223 (in Slovak with English summary).

Balen D. & Broska I. 2011: Tourmaline nodules: products of devolatilization withon the final evolutionary stage of granite melt? Geol. Soc. London, Spec. Paper 350, 53–68.

Baran J., Drnzíková L. & Mandáková K. 1970: Sn–W ore mineralisation related to Hnilec granite. Mineralia Slovaca 2, 159–164 (in Slovak).

Bau M. 1996: Controls on the fractionation of isovalent trace elements in magmatic and aqueous systems : evidence fromY/Ho, Zr/Hf, and lanthanide tetrad effect. Contrib. Mineral. Petrol., 123, 323–333.

Breiter K. 2012: Nearly contemporaneous evolution of the A- and S-type fractionated granites in the Krušne Hory/Erzgebirge Mts. Central Europe. Lithos 151, 105–121.

Breiter K., Förster H. & Seltmann R. 1999: Variscan silicic magmatism and related tin-tungsten mineralization in the Erzgebirge– Slavkovský les metamollgenic province. Miner. Deposita 34, 505–521.

Breiter K., Frýda J. & Leichmann J. 2002: Phosphorus and rubidium in alkali feldspars: case studies and possible genetic interpretation. Bull. Czech Geol. Survey 77, 93–104.

Breiter K., Broska I. & Uher P. 2015: Intensive low-temperature tectono– hydrothermal overprint of peraluminous rare-metal granite: a case study from the Dlhá dolina Valley (Gemericum, Slovakia). Geol. Carpath. 66, 19–36.

Breiter K., Ďurišová J., Hrstka T., Hlošková Vaňková M., Vašinová Galiová M., Kanický V., Rambousek P., Knésl I., Dobeš P. & Dosbaba M. 2017: Assessment of magmatic vs. metasomatic processes in rare metal granites: A case study of the Cínovec/Zinnwald Sn-W-Li deposit, Central Europe. Lithos 292–293, 198–201.

Broska I. & Uher P. 2001: Whole-rock chemistry and genetic typology of the West-Carpathian Variscan granites. Geol. Carpath. 52, 79–90.

Broska I., Uher P. & Lipka J. 1998: Brown and blue schorl from the Spiš–Gemer granite, Slovakia: composition and genetic relations. J. Czech Geol. Soc. 43, 9–16.

Broska I., Kubiš M., Williams C. & Konečný P. 2002: The compositions of rock-forming and accessory minerals from the Gemeric granites (Hnilec area, Gemeric Superunit, Western Carpathians). Bull. Czech Geol. Survey 77, 147–155.

Buriánek D. & Novák M. 2007: Compositional evolution and substitutions in disseminated and nodular tourmaline from leucocratic granites: examples from the Bohemian Massif, Czech Republic. Lithos 95, 148–164.

Cambel B., Kráľ J. & Burchart J. 1990: Isotopic geochronology of crystalline rock of the Western Carpathians. Veda, Bratislava, 1–183.

Chappell B.W. & White A.J.R. 2001: Two contrasting granite types: 25 years later. Austrian J. Earth Sci. 48, 489–499.

Charoy B., Chaussidon M., de Veslud L.C. & Duthou J.L. 2003: Evidence of Sr mobility in and around the albite-lepidolite-topaz granite of Beuvoir (France): an in situ ion and electron probe study of secondary Sr-rich phosphates. Contrib Mineral. Petrol. 145, 673–690.

Černý P. & Ercit T.S. 2005: The classification of granitic pegmatites revisited. Can. Mineral. 43, 2005–2026.

Dianiška I., Breiter K., Broska I., Kubiš M. & Malachovský P. 2002: First Phosphorus-rich Nb–Ta–Sn-specialised granite from the Carpathians Dlhá Dolina valey granite pluton, Gemeric Superunit, Slovakia. Geol. Carpath. 53, spec. iss., CD-ROM.

Dingwell D.B., Scarfe C.M. & Cronin D.J. 1985: The effect of fluorine on viscosities in the system Na2O–Al2O3–SiO2: implications for phonolites, trachytes and rhyolites. Am. Mineral. 70, 80–87.

Dingwell D.B., Pichavant M. & Holtz F. 1996: Experimental studies of boron in granitic melts. Rev. Mineral. Geochem. 33, 330–385.

Drivenes K., Larsen R.B., Müller A., Sorensen B.E., Wiedenbeck M. & Raanes M.P. 2015: Late-magmatic immiscibility during batholith formation: assessment of B isotopes and trace elements in tourmaline from the Land’s End granite, SW England. Contrib. Mineral. Petrol. 169, 56–83.

Duran C.J., Seydoux-Guillaume A.M., Bingen B., Gouy S., Parseval P., Ingrin J. & Guillaume D. 2016: Fluid-mediated alteration of (Y, REE, U, Th)-(Nb, Ta, Ti) oxide minerals in granitic pegmatite from the Evje-Iveland district, southern Norway. Mineral. Petrol. 110, 581–599.

Dutrow B.L. & Henry D.J. 2011: Tourmaline: a geologic DVD. Elements 7, 301–306.

Elliott B.A., O’Neill L.Ch. & Kyle J.R. 2017: Mineralogy and crystallisation history of highly differentiated REE-enriched hypabyssal rhyolite: Round Top laccolith Trans-Pecos, Texas. Mineral. Petrol. DOI 10.1007/s00710-017-0511-5

Faryad S. & Dianiška I. 1989: Garnets from granitoids of the Spišskogemerské Rudohorie Mts. Geol. Zborn. Geol. Carpath. 40, 715–734.

Finger F. & Broska I. 1999: The Gemeric S-type granites in southeastern Slovakia: late Palaeozoic or Alpine intrusions? Evidence from electron-microprobe dating of monazite. Schweiz. Mineral. Petrogr. Mitt. 79, 439–443.

Gaafar I.M. & Ali K.G. 2015: Geophysical and geochemical signature of rare metal granites, central eastern Desert, Egypt: Implications for tectonic environment. Earth Sciences 4, 5, 161–179.

Galliski M.A., Černý P., Márquez-Zavalia M.F. & Chapman R. 2012: An association of secondary Al–Li–Be–Ca–Sr phosphates in the San Elías pegmatite, San Luis, Argentina. Can. Mineral. 90, 933–942.

Grecula P., Abonyi A., Abonyiova M., Antaš J., Bartlaský B., Dianiška I., Drnzík E., Ďuďa R., Gargulák M., Gazdačko L., Macko J., Návesňák D., Németh Z., Novotný L., Radvanec M., Rojkovič I., Rozložník L., Rozložník O., Varček C. & Zlocha J. 1995: Mineral deposits of the Slovak Ore Mountains, volume 1. Geocomplex, Bratislava, 1–834.

Grecula P., Radvanec M. & Németh Z. 2000: Magnesite and talc mineralization in Slovakia. Mineralia Slovaca 32, 533–542.

Haapala I. 1997: Magmatic and postmagmatic processes in tin-bearing granites: topaz-bearing leucogranites in the Eurojoki rapakivi granite stock, Finland. J. Petrol. 38, 1645–1659.

Henry D.J., Novák M., Hawthorne F.C., Ertl A., Dutrow B.L., Uher P. & Pezzotta F. 2011: Nomenclature of the tourmaline-supergroup minerals. Am. Mineral. 96, 895–913.

Irber W. 1999: The lanthanide tetrad effect and its correlation with K/Rb, Eu/Eu*, Sr/Eu, Y/Ho, and Zr/Hf of evolving peraluminous granite suites. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 63, 489–508.

Jiang S.Y., Radvanec M., Nakamura M., Palmer M., Kobayashi K., Zhao H.X. & Kui D.Z. 2008: Chemical and boron isotopic variations of tourmaline in the Hnilec granite-related hydrothermal system, Slovakia: Constrains on magmatic and metamorphic fluid evolution. Lithos 106, 1–11.

Jakabská K. & Rozložník L. 1989: Zircons of gemeric granites (Western Carpathians, Czechoslovakia). Geol. Zborn. Geol. Carpath. 40, 141–159.

Kamenický J. & Kamenický L. 1955: Gemeric granites and ore mineralisation of Spiš–Gemer Ore Mountains. Geol Práce Zošit 47, 1–73 (in Slovak). Kohút M. & Reccio C. 2002: Sulphur isotope study of selected Hercynian granitic and surrounding rocks from the Western Carpathians (Slovakia). Geol. Carpath. 53, 3–13.

Kohút M. & Stein H. 2005: Re–Os molybdenite dating of granite-related Sn–W–Mo mineralisation at Hnilec, Gemeric Superunit, Slovakia. Mineral. Petrol. 85, 117–129.

Kohút M., Kovách V.P., Kotov A.B., Salnikova E.B. & Savatenkov V.M. 1999: Sr and Nd isotope geochemistry of hercynian granitic rocks from the Western Carpathians implications for granite genesis and crustal evolution. Geol. Carpath. 50, 477–487.

Kovách A., Svingor E. & Grecula P. 1986: Rb–Sr isotopic ages of granitoids from the Spišsko Gemerské Rudohorie Mts. Mineralia Slovaca 18, 1–14.

Krist E., Korikovskij S.P., Putiš M., Janák M. & Faryad S.W. 1992: Geology and petrology of metamoprhic rocks of the Western Carpathian crystalline complex. Comenius University Press Bratislava, 1–324.

Kubiš M. & Broska I. 2005: The role of boron and fluorine in evolved granitic rock system (on the example of the Hnilec area, Western Carpathians). Geol. Carpath. 56, 193–204.

Kubiš M. & Broska I. 2010: The granite system near Betliar village (Gemeric Superunit, Western Carpathians): evolution of a composite silicic reservoir. J. Geosci. 55, 131–148.

London D., Černý P., Loomis J.L. & Pan J.J. 1990: Phosphorus in alkali feldspars of rare-metal granitic pegmatites. Can. Mineral. 28, 771–786.

Lee S-G., Ahn I., Asahara Y., Tanaka T. & Lee S.R. 2018: Geochemical interpretation of magnesium and oxygen isotopic systematics in granites with the REE tetrad effect. Geosci. J. 22, 697–710.

Lexa O., Schulmann K.& Ježek J. 2003: Cretaceous collision and indentation in the West Carpathians: View based on structural analysis and numerical modeling. Tectonics 22, 6, 1066, doi:10.1029/2002TC001472.

Lukkari S., Thomas R. & Haapala I. 2009: Crystallization of the Kymi topaz granite stock within the Wiborg Rapakivi granite batholith, Finland: evidence from melt inclusions. Can. Mineral. 47, 1359–1374.

Malachovský P., Dianiška I., Matula I., Kamenický J., Kobulský J., Hodermarský J., Fabian M., Radvanec M., Kozáč J., Vlasák M., Mihalič A., Ščerbáková A., Seliga J. & Novoveský M. 1983: SGR — high temperature mineralization — Sn, W, Mo ores. Open file report, Geofond, Bratislava, 1–248 (in Slovak).

Malachovský P., Turanová L. & Dianiška I. 1992: Final report on mineral exploration from Gemerská Poloma. Open file report, Geofond, Bratislava, 1–180 (in Slovak).

Malachovský P., Uher P. & Ďuďa R. 2000: Nb-W minerals in rare metal granites, Dlhá dolina Spišsko Gemerské Rudohorie Mts. Natura Carpatica 41, 7–14 (in Slovak).

Manning D.A.C. 1981: The efekt of fluorine on liquidus phase relationship in the system Qz-Ab-Or with excess water at 1 kbar. Contrib. Mineral. Petrol. 76, 206–215.

Melcher F., Graupner T., Gäbler H-E., Sitnikova M., Oberthür T., Gerdes A., Badanina E. & Chudy T. 2017: Mineralogical and chemical evolution of tantalum-(niobium-tin) mineralisation in pegmatites and granites. Part 2: Worldwide examples (exluding Africa) and an overview of global mettalogenetic patterns. Ore Geol. Rev. 89, 946–987.

Müller A., Breiter K., Seltmann R. & Pécskay Z. 2005: Quartz and feldspar zoning in the eastern Erzgebirge volcano-plutonic complex (Germany, Czech Republic): evidence of multiple magma mixing. Lithos 80, 201–227.

Németh Z. 2002: Variscan suture zone in Gemericum: Contribution to reconstruction of geodynamic evolution and metallogenetic events of Inner Western Carpathians. Slovak Geological Magazine 8, 3–4, 247–257.

Pecho J., Beňka J., Gargulák M. & Václav J. 1980: Final report. Geological investigation of Sb deposits, Betliar–Čučma–Volovec area. Open file report, Geofond, Bratislava, 1–427 (in Slovak).

Perugini D. & Poli G. 2007: Tourmaline nodules from Capo Bianco aplite (Elba Island, Italy): an example of diffusion limited aggregation growth in a magmatic system. Contrib. Mineral. Petrol. 153, 493–508.

Petrasová K., Faryad S.H., Jeřábek P. & Žáčková E. 2007: Origin and metamorphic evolution of the magnesite–talc and adjacent rocks near Gemerská Poloma, Slovak Republic. J. Geosci. 52, 125–132.

Petrík I., Kubiš M., Konečný P., Broska I. & Malachovský P. 2011: Rare phosphates from the Surovec topaz–Li mica microgranite, Gemeric Unit, Western Carpathians, Slovak Republic: role of F/H2O of the melt. Can. Mineral. 49, 521–540.

Petrík I., Čík Š., Miglierini M., Vaculovič T., Dianiška I. & Ozdín D. 2014: Alpine oxidation of lithium micas in Permian S-type granites (Gemeric unit, Western Carpathians, Slovakia). Mineral. Mag. 78, 507–533.

Pichavant M. 1981: An experimental study of the effect of boron on a water-saturated haplogranite at 1 kbar pressure. Geological applications. Contrib. Mineral. Petrol. 76, 430–439.

Plančár J., Fillo M., Šefara J., Snopko L. & Klinec A. 1977: Geophysical and geological interpretations of ore deposits and magnetic anomalies in Slovak Ore Mountains. Západné Karpaty Geologia 2, 7–114 (in Slovak with English summary).

Pollard P.J., Pichavant M. & Charoy B. 1987: Contrasting evolutin of fluorine- and boron-rich tin systems. Miner. Deposita 22, 315–321.

Poller U., Uher P., Broska I., Plašienka D. & Janák M. 2002: First Permian–Early Triassic ages for tin-bearing granites from the Gemeric unit (Western Carpathians, Slovakia): connection to the post-collisional extension of the Variscan orogen and S-type granite magmatism. Terra Nova 14, 41–48.

Pupin J.P. 1980: Zircon and granite petrology. Contrib. Mineral. Petrol. 73, 207–220.

Radvanec M. & Grecula P. 2016: Geotectonic and metallogenetic evolution of Gemericum (Inner Western Carpathians) from Ordovician to Jurassic. Mineralia Slovaca 48, 105–118.

Radvanec M., Koděra P. & Procháska W. 2004: Mg replacement at the Gemerska Poloma talc-magnesite deposit, Western Carpathians, Slovakia. Acta Petrol. Sinica 20, 773–790.

Radvanec M., Konečný P., Ondrejka M., Putiš M., Uher P. & Németh Z. 2009: The Gemeric granites as an indicator of the crustal extension above the Late-Variscan subduction zone and during the Early Alpine riftogenesis (Western Carpathians): an interpretation from the monazite and zircon ages dated by CHIME and SHRIMP methods. Mineralia Slovaca 41, 381–394 (in Slovak with English summary).

Roda-Robles E., Pesquera S., Gil P.P., Torres-Ruiz J. & Fontan F. 2004: Tourmaline from the rare-metal Pinilla pegmatite (Central Iberian zone, Zamora, Spain): chemical variation and implication for granite evolution. Mineral. Petrol. 81, 249–263.

Rojkovič I., Konečný P., Novotný L., Puškelová Ľ. & Streško V. 1999: Quartz–apatite–REE vein mineralisation in early palaeozoic rocks of the Gemeric superunit, Slovakia. Geol. Carpath. 50, 215–227.

Romer R.I. & Kroner U. 2016: Phanerozoic tin and tungsten mineralization — tectonic controls on the distribution of enriched protoliths and heat sources for crustal melting. Gondwana Res. 31, 60–95.

Rub M.G., Pavlov V.A., Cambel B. & Veselský J. 1977: Typomorphic properties of biotite and accessory minerals in the Gemeric granites of Slovakia. Geol. Zbor. Geol. Carpath. 28, 29–310 (in Russian).

Samson I.M. & Sinclair W.D. 1992: Magmatic hydrothermal fluids and the origin of quartz-tourmaline orbicles in the Seagull Batholith, Yukon Territory. Can. Mineral. 30, 937–954.

Simons B., Andersen J.C.O., Shail R.B. & Jenner F.E. 2017: Fractionation of Li, Be, Ga, Nb, Ta, In, Sn, Sb, W and Bi in the peraluminous Early Permian Variscan granites of the Cornubian Batholith: Precursor processes to magmatic-hydrothermal mineralisation. Lithos 278–281, 491–512.

Šefara J., Bielik M., Vozár J., Katona M., Szalaiová V. & Vozárová A. 2017: 3D density modelling of Gemeric granites of the Western Carpathians. Geol. Carpath. 68, 177–192.

Števko M., Uher P., Sejkora J., Malíková R., Škoda R. & Vaculovič T. 2015: Phosphate minerals from the hydrothermal quartz veins in specialised S-type granites, Gemerská Poloma (Western Carpathians, Slovakia). J. Geosci. 60, 237–249.

Trumbull R.B., Krienitz M.S., Gottesmann B. & Wiedenbeck M. 2008: Chemical and boron-isotope variations in tourmalines from an S-type granite and its source rocks: the Erongo granite and tourmalinites in the Damara Belt, Nanibia. Contrib. Mineral. Petrol. 155, 1–18.

Uher P. & Broska I. 1996: Post-orogenic Permian granitic rocks in the Western Carpathian-Panonian area: geochemistry, mineralogy and evolution. Geol. Carpath. 47, 113–121.

Uher P., Malachovský P., Dianiška I. & Kubiš M. 2001: Rare-metal Nb–Ta–W mineralisation of the tin-bearing Spiš–Gemer granites, Eastern Slovakia. Geolines 13, 119–120.

van Hinsberg V.J., Henry D.J. & Marschall H.R. 2011: Tourmaline: an ideal indicator of its host environment. Can. Mineral. 49, 1–16.

Vozár J., Spišiak J., Vozárová A., Bazarnik J. & Kráľ J. 2015: Geochemistry and Sr, Nd isotopic composition of the Hronic Upper Paleozoic basic rocks (Western Carpathians, Slovakia). Geol. Carpath. 66, 3–17.

Yavuz F., Fuchs Y., Karakaya N. & Karakaya M.C. 2008: Chemical composition of tourmaline from the Asarck Pb Zn–Cu±U deposit, Şebinkarahisar, Turkey. Mineral. Petrol. 94, 195–208.

Geologica Carpathica

The Journal of Geological Institute of Slovak Academy of Sciences

Journal Information

IMPACT FACTOR 2017: 1.169
5-year IMPACT FACTOR: 1.431

CiteScore 2017: 1.26

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2017: 0.551
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2017: 0.836


All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 64 64 15
PDF Downloads 61 61 12