Rhinocerotidae from the Upper Miocene deposits of the Western Pannonian Basin (Hungary): implications for migration routes and biogeography

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Although the rhinoceros remains have high biochronological significance, they are poorly known or scarcely documented in the uppermost Miocene deposits of Europe. Several specimens collected from the Upper Miocene (around 7.0 Ma, Turolian) deposits of Kávás (Pannonian Basin, Western Hungary), previously determined as Rhinoceros sp., are revised and described in this paper. The postcranial remains of these specimens belong to “Dihoplus” megarhinus (de Christol) on the basis of the morphological and morphometric characters of humerus, radii, metacarpal and metatarsal elements. An overview of rhinoceros remains from several uppermost Miocene localities and the revision of the rhinoceros material from the Pannonian Basin suggest that “D.” megarhinus spread during the latest Miocene from the Pannonian Basin towards Italy. The occurrences of this species in Western Hungary and Italy during the latest Miocene further imply that Rhinocerotini species were biogeographically segregated between Western, Southern and Central Europe.

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