Early Sarmatian paleoenvironments in the easternmost Pannonian Basin (Borod Depression, Romania) revealed by the micropaleontological data

Open access


The Sarmatian sedimentary record of the Borod Depression (eastern Pannonian Basin) consists of a marine sequence with continental influence. The investigated section, located near Vârciorog, was biostratigraphically and paleoenvironmentally analysed. The micro- and macrofossil assemblages include dasycladaceans, characeans, foraminifera, molluscs, polychaetes, ostracods, crabs, bryozoans, fish and vertebrate remains, which are characteristic for a shallow marine setting with local transitions to continental facies. The microfossil assemblages are characteristic for the Elphidium reginum Zone and Mohrensternia Zone of the early Sarmatian (Serravallian). The succession of populations correlates with the sedimentological trend, allowing the separation of several genetic units. The relative sea-level changes and the progradational trend from the top of the section suggest active tectonics in the hinterland (Apuseni Mountains). The shallow seas surrounding the emerging islands (Apuseni Mountains) provided the connections between the Pannonian and Transylvanian basins during the early Sarmatian

Athersuch J. 1976: The genus Xestoleberis (Crustacea: Ostracoda) with particular reference to Recent Mediterranean species. Pubblicazioni della Stazione Zoologica di Napoli 40, 282-343.

Binder H. 2004: Terrestrial, freshwater and brachyhalin Gastropoda from the Lower Miocene deposits of Oberdorf (Steiermark, Österreich). Ann. Naturhist. Mus. Wien 105A, 189-229.

Bonaduce G. & Danielopol D.L. 1988: To see and not to be seen: The evolutionary problems of the Ostracoda Xestoleberididae. In: Hanai T., Ikeya N. & Ishizaki K. (Eds.): Evolutionary biology of ostracoda. Developments in paleontology and stratigraphy 11, 375-398.

Bonaduce G., Ciampo G. & Masoli M. 1976: Distribution of Ostracoda in the Adriatic Sea. Pubblicazioni della Stazione Zoologica di Napoli, Suppl. 1, 40, 1-154.

Breman E. 1976: The distribution of ostracodes in the bottom sedimentes of the Adriatic Sea. Krips Repro Meppel I-XIII, 1-165.

Brestenská E. 1974: Die Foraminiferen des Sarmatien s. str. In: Brestenská E. (Ed.): Chronostratigraphie und Neostratotypen - Miozän der Zentralen Paratethys, M5 Sarmatien. Verlag Slowak. Akad. Wissenschaft., Geol. Inst., Bratislava 4, 243-293.

Bucur I.I., Nicorici E. & Turaru N. 1993: Sarmatian calcareous algae from Romania. Boll. Soc. Paleont. Ital., Modena 1, 81-91.

Cernajsek T. 1974: Die Ostracodenfaunen der Sarmatischen Schichten in Österreich. In: Papp A., Marinescu F. & Seneš J. (Eds.): Chronostratigraphie und Neostratotypen, Miozän der Zentralen Paratethys, (M5). VEDA, Bratislava 4, 458-491.

Chintăuan I. 1977: Study of the ostracods from the Neogene sediments from Delureni (Borod Basin). Nymphaea, Oradea 5, 63-69 (in Romanian).

Chintăuan I. & Nicorici E. 1976: Miocene ostracods from the southern Simleu Basin. D.S. sedintelor, Bucuresti LXII/3 (1974-1975), 3-23 (in Romanian).

Clichici O. 1971: Macrofauna of the Sarmatian deposits from the eastern Simleu Basin. Stud. Univ. “Babes-Bolyai”, Geologia- Mineralogia, Cluj-Napoca XVI/2, 43-53 (in Romanian).

Clichici O. 1972: Microfaunal study of the Sarmatian deposits from the Simleu Basin. Stud. Univ. “Babes-Bolyai”, Geologia-Mineralogia, Cluj-Napoca 2, 49-56 (in Romanian).

Corliss B.H. 1985: Microhabitats of benthic foraminifera within deep-sea sediments. Nature 314, 435-438.

Corliss B.H. & Fois E. 1990: Morphotype analysis of deep-sea benthic foraminifera from the Northwest Gulf of Mexico. Palaios 5, 589-605.

Filipescu S. & Popa M. 2001: Biostratigraphic and palaeoecologic significance of the macro- and microfossils assemblages in the Borod Formation (Eastern Borod Depression, North-West Romania). Acta Palaeont. Romaniae 3, 135-148.

Filipescu S., Popa M. & Wanek F. 2000: The significance of the Sarmatian faunas from the south-western part of the Pădurea Craiului Mountains (Romania). Acta Palaeont. Romaniae 2(1999), 163-169.

Fordinál K. & Zlinská A. 1994: Sarmatian fauna from Stretavy and Kochanovice formation from surrounding of Sečovce (Albinov hill, East Slovakian Basin) - in Slovakian. Geol. Práce, Spr. 99, 77-82.

Fordinál K., Zágoršek K. & Zlinská A. 2006: Early Sarmatian biota in the northern part of the Danube Basin (Slovakia). Geol. Carpathica 57, 2, 123-130.

Gebhardt H., Zorn I. & Roetzel R. 2009: The initial phase of the early Sarmatian (Middle Miocene) transgression. Foraminiferal and ostracod assemblages from an incised valley fill in the Molasse Basin of Lower Austria. Austrian J. Earth Sci. 102, 2, 100-119.

Ghiurcă V. & Stancu J. 1974: Les Bryozoaires sarmatiens du Paratethys Central. In: Papp A., Marinescu F. & Seneš J. (Eds.): Sarmatien. Chronostratigraphie und Neostratotypen M5. VEDA, Bratislava 4, 298-317.

Givulescu R. 1957: Geological research in the Neogene Borod Basin (Oradea Region). Stud. Cerc. Geol.-Geogr., Cluj-Napoca VIII/1-2, 99-158 (in Romanian).

Givulescu R. 1991: Fossil plants in the Well 3153 from Borod, Bihor county. Stud. Cerc. Geol., Bucuresti 36, 73-76 (in Romanian).

Görög Á. 1992: Sarmatian Foraminifera of the Zsámbék Basin, Hungary. Ann. Univ. Sci budapestinensis Rolando Eötvös, Sect.

Geol. 29, 31-153.

Grill R. 1941: Stratigraphische Untersuchungen mit Hilfe von Mikrofaunen im Wiener Becken und den benachbarten Molasse- Anteilen. Oel und Kohle 37, 595-602.

Gross M. 2006: Mittelmiozäne Ostracoden aus dem Wiener Becken (Badenium/Sarmatium, Österreich). Österr. Akad. Wissenschaft., Schriftenreihe der Erdwissenschaftlichen Kommissionen, Sonderband 1, 1-224.

Gross M., Harzhauser M., Mandic O., Piller W.E. & Rögl F. 2007: A stratigraphic enigma: the age of the Neogene deposits of Graz (Styrian Basin; Austria). Joannea Geol. Paläont. 9, 195-220.

Györfi I. & Csontos L. 1994: Structural evolution of SE Hungary and Neogene Basins of the Apuseni Mountains (Romania). Romanian J. Tectonics and Regional Geol., Bucuresti 75, Suppl. 1, Abstracts, 19-20.

Haq B.U., Hardenbol J. & Hardenbol P.R. 1988: Mesozoic and Cenozoic chronostratigraphy and cycles of sea level changes. In: Wilgus C.K., Hastings B.S., Kendall C.G.St.C., Posamentier H.W., Ross C.A. & Van Wagooner J.C. (Eds.): Sea-level changes - An integrated approach. SEPM Spec. Publ. 42, 71-108.

Hartmann G. 1975: Ostracoda. Dr. H.G. Bronns Klassen und Ordnungen des Tierreichs, 5, 1. Abteilung, 2. Buch, 4. Teil, 4. Lieferung, VEB Gustav Fischer Verlag, Jena, 569-786.

Harzhauser M. & Kowalke T. 2002: Sarmatian (Late Middle Miocene) Gastropod Assemblages of the Central Paratethys. Facies 46, 57-82.

Harzhauser M. & Piller W.E. 2004a: The Early Sarmatian - hidden seesaw changes. Cour. Forsch.-Inst. Senckenberg 246, 89-111.

Harzhauser M. & Piller W.E. 2004b: Integrated stratigraphy of the Sarmatian (Upper Middle Miocene) in the western Central Paratethys. Stratigraphy 1, 65-86.

Harzhauser M., Gross M. & Binder H. 2008: Biostratigraphy of Middle Miocene (Sarmatian) wetland systems in an Eastern Alpine intramontane basin (Gratkorn Basin, Austria): the terrestrial gastropod approach. Geol. Carpathica 59, 1, 45-58.

Istocescu D. & Gheorghian M.D. 1971: Micropaleontological data on the Upper Miocene from the Crisului Alb Basin. D.S. Sedintelor LVII/3 (1969-1970), 77-83 (in Romanian).

Istocescu D. & Istocescu F. 1974: Geological considerations on the Neogene deposits of the Crisurilor Basin. Stud. Cerc. Geol. Geofiz. Geogr. (Geol.), Acad. RSR, Bucuresti 19, 115-127 (in Romanian).

Istocescu D., Diaconu M. & Istocescu F. 1965: Contributions to the knowledge of the Upper Miocene from the north-eastern border of the Beius Basin. D.S. Comitetului Geol. 5l, l(1963-1964), 251-256 (in Romanian).

Istocescu D., Mihai A., Diaconu M. & Istocescu F. 1970: Geological study of the area between Crisul Repede and Crisul Negru. D.S. Inst. Geol., Bucuresti LV/5 (1967-1968), 89-106 (in Romanian).

Janz H. 1994: Zur Bedeutung des Schalenmerkmals “Marginalrippen” der Gattung Ilyocypris (Ostracoda, Crustacea). Stuttgarter Beitr. Naturkunde, B 206, 1-19.

Jiříček R. 1974: Biostratigraphische Bedeutung der Ostracoden des Sarmats s. str. In: Papp A., Marinescu F. & Seneš J. (Eds.): Chronostratigraphie und Neostratotypen, Miozän der Zentralen Paratethys (M5). Verlag Slowak. Akad. Wissenschaft., Bratislava 4, 434-457.

Jiříček R. & Říha J. 1991: Correlation of Ostracod Zones in the Paratethys and Tethys. Saito Ho-on Kai Spec. Publ. (Proceedings of Shallow Tethys) 3, 435-457.

Jorissen F.J., De Stigter H.C. & Widmark J.G.V. 1995: A conceptual model explaining benthic foraminiferal microhabitats. Mar. Micropaleont. 26, 3-15.

Kollmann K. 1960: Cytherideinae und Schulerideinae n. subfam. (Ostracoda) aus dem Neogen des östl. Österreich. Mitt. Geol. Gesell. Wien 51(1958), 89-195.

Koubová I. & Hudáčková N. 2010: Foraminiferal successions in the shallow water Sarmatian sediments from the MZ 93 borehole (Vienna Basin, Slovak part). Acta Geol. Slovaca 2, 1, 47-58.

Kováč M., Sliva S., Sopková B., Hlavatá J. & Škulová A. 2008: Serravallian sequence stratigraphy of the Vienna Basin: high frequency cycles in the Sarmatian sedimentary record. Geol. Carpathica 59, 6, 545-561.

Krézsek C. & Filipescu S. 2005: Middle to late Miocene sequence stratigraphy of the Transylvanian Basin (Romania). Tectonophysics 410, 437-463. Langer M.R. 1993: Epiphytic foraminifera. Mar. Micropaleont. 20, 235-265.

Lukeneder S., Zuschin M., Harzhauser M. & Mandic O. 2011: Mollusc- based statistics in an endemic marine system as tool in paleoecology and stratigraphy. Acta Paleont. Pol. 56, 767-784.

Łuczkowska E. 1972: Miliolidae (Foraminiferida) from Miocene of Poland. Part I. Revision of the classification. Acta Paleont. Pol. 17, 3, 341-377, 2 pls.

Łuczkowska E. 1974: Miliolidae (Foraminiferida) from the Miocene of Poland. Part II. Biostratigraphy, palaeoecology and systematics. Acta Paleont. Pol. 19, 1-176.

Mandic O., Harzhauser M., Roetzel R. & Tibuleac P. 2008: Benthic mass-mortality events on a Middle Miocene incised-valley tidalflat (North Alpine Foredeep Basin). Facies 54, 343-359.

Miclea A., Jipa C., Bucur I.I. & Filipescu S. 2011: The dasycladacean Halicoryne morelleti from Borod Basin (Romania) and its paleoecologic significance. 10th International Symposium on Fossil Algae, Cluj-Napoca, Romania, 12-18 September 2011. Abstracts volume, 1-56.

Molnar D.G. 2011: Middle Miocene micromammal assemblage from Vârciorog (Bihor). Graduation Thesis, Babes-Bolyai Univ., Cluj-Napoca, 1-58 (in Romanian).

Morkhoven van F.P.C.M. 1963: Post-Palaeozoic Ostracoda, their morphology, taxonomy, and economic use. Vol. 2. Generic descriptions. Elsevier, 1-478.

Murray J.W. 1991: Ecology and paleoecology of benthic foraminifera. John Longman Scientific & Technical, Essex, 1-397.

Murray J.W. 2006: Ecology and applications of benthic foraminifera. Cambridge University Press, 1-426.

Nicorici E. 1971: The Sarmatian fauna from Vârciorog (Vad Basin).Stud. Cerc., Geol. Geofiz. Geogr. (Geol.), Bucuresti 16, 1, 215-232 (in Romanian).

Nicorici E. & Istocescu D. 1970: Biostratigraphic investigations on the Sarmatian from Vârciorog (Vad Basin). Stud. Univ. “Babes-Bolyai”, Geol.-Mineralogie, Cluj-Napoca 2, 49-55 (in Romanian).

Papaianopol I. & Macales R. 1998: La lithostratigraphie et la biostratigraphie du Sarmatien du golfe du Borod (Bassin Pannonique, Roumanie). An. Stiins. Unive. “Al. I. Cuza”, Geol., Iasi XLIV, 151-166.

Papp A. 1956: Fazies und Gliederung des Sarmats im Wiener Becken. Mitt. Geol. Gesell. Wien 47, 1-97.

Paucă M. 1954: The Neogene from the external basins of the Apuseni Mountains. An. Com. Geol., Bucuresti XXVII, 259-336 (in Romanian).

Pietrzeniuk E. 1973: Neue Callistocythere-Arten (Ostracoda) aus dem Unteren Sarmat des Tokajer Gebirges (nördliche Ungarische VR). Z. Geol. Wiss. 1, 6, 703-733.

Pirkenseer C. & Berger J.P. 2011: Paleogene Ostracoda from the southern Upper Rhine Graben: Taxonomy, palaeoecology and palaeobiogeography. Palaeontographica, A 295(1-6), 1-152.

Popa M. 1998: Biostratigraphy of the Neogene deposits from the eastern part of the Vad-Borod Basin (in Romanian). PhD Thesis, Babes-Bolyai Univ., Cluj-Napoca 1-248, 31 pls.

Popa M. 2000: Lithostratigraphy of the Miocene deposits in the eastern part of Borod Basin (North-Western of Romania). Stud. Univ. Babes-Bolyai, XLV(2), 93-103.

Popa M., Cociuba I. & Filipescu S. 1998: The occurrence of Sarmatian deposits close to the springs of Vida Valley (Apuseni Mountains, Romania). Stud. Univ. “Babes-Bolyai”, Geol., Cluj-Napoca XLIII/2, 57-64.

Popescu G. 1995: Contribution to the knowledge of the Sarmatian Foraminifera of Romania. Romanian J. Paleont. 76, 85-98.

Rado G. 1972: Biostratigraphic study of the Sarmatian from Bucuroaia- Calea Mare-Mierlău area (Beius Basin). An. Univ. Bucuresti, Geol. XXI, 117-125 (in Romanian).

Schäfer P. 2011: Beiträge zur Ostracoden- und Foraminiferen-Fauna der Unteren Süßwassermolasse in der Schweiz und in Savoyen (Frankreich). 3. Das Findreuse-Profi l (Département Haute- Savoie, Frankreich). Zitteliana, A 51, 255-283.

Schütz K., Harzhauser M., Rögl F., Ćorić S. & Galovic I. 2007: Foraminiferen und Phytoplankton aus dem unteren Sarmatium des südlichen Wiener Beckens (Petronell, Niederösterreich). Jb. Geol. Bundesanst. 147, 449-488.

Szczechura J. 2000: Age and evolution of depositional environments of the supra-evaporitic deposits in the northern, marginal part of the Carpathian Foredeep: micropalaeontological evidence. Geol. Quart. 44, 1, 81-100.

Suraru N. & Suraru M. 1973: On the presence of the Lower Miocene in the Borod Basin (Bihor). Stud. Unive. “Babes-Bolyai”, Geol. Mineral., Cluj-Napoca XVIII/2, 29-38 (in Romanian).

Tóth E. 2004: Sarmatian ostracods from Budapest (Hungary). Hantkeniana 4, 129-159.

Tóth E. 2008: Sarmatian (Middle Miocene) ostracod fauna from Zsámbék Basin, Hungary. Geol. Pannonica 36, 101-151.

Tóth E. & Görög Á. 2008: Sarmatian foraminifera fauna from Budapest (Hungary). 125th Anniversary of the Department of Palaeontology at Budapest University -A jubilee volume. Hantkeniana 6, 187-217.

Tóth E., Görög Á., Lécuyer C., Moissette P., Balter V. & Monostori M. 2010: Palaeoenvironmental reconstruction of the Sarmatian (Middle Miocene) Central Paratethys based on palaeontological and geochemical analyses of foraminifera, ostracods, gastropods and rodents. Geol. Mag. 147, 2, 299-314.

Vávra N. 1977: Bryozoa tertiaria. Catalogus Fossilium Austriae, Heft Vb/3, 1-189.

Walton W.R. & Sloan B.J. 1990: The genus Ammonia Brünnich, 1772: its geographic distribution and morphologic variability. J. Foram. Res. 20, 2, 128-156.

Zaninetti L. 1982: Les foraminiféres des marais salants de Salins de Giraud (Sud de la France): milieu de vie et transport dans le salin, comparaison avec les microfaunes marines. Géol. Méditerranéenne 9, 447-470.

Zágoršek K. 2007: A new Miocene Bryozoa from the Sarmatian of the Danube basin. Neu. Geol. Paleont. 243, 2, 299-303.

Zágoršek K. & Fordinál F. 2006: Lower Sarmatian Bryozoa from brackish sediment in the northern part of the Danube Basin (Dubová, Slovakia). Linzer Biol. Beitr. 38, 1, 93-99.

Zágoršek K., Silye L. & Szabo B. 2008: New Bryozoa from the Sarmatian (Middle Miocene) deposits of the Cerna-Strei Depression, Romania. Stud. Univ. Babes-Bolyai, Geol. 53, 1, 25-29.

Zelenka J. 1990: A review of the Sarmatian Ostracoda of the Vienna Basin. In: Whatley R. & Maybury C. (Eds.): Ostracoda and global events. Chapman & Hall, London, 263-270.

Geologica Carpathica

The Journal of Geological Institute of Slovak Academy of Sciences

Journal Information

IMPACT FACTOR 2017: 1.169
5-year IMPACT FACTOR: 1.431

CiteScore 2017: 1.26

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2017: 0.551
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2017: 0.836

Cited By


All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 194 194 19
PDF Downloads 143 143 10