Sapphires related to alkali basalts from the Cerová Highlands, Western Carpathians (southern Slovakia): composition and origin

Open access

Sapphires related to alkali basalts from the Cerová Highlands, Western Carpathians (southern Slovakia): composition and origin

Blue, grey-pink and pink sapphires from the Cerová Highlands, Western Carpathians (southern Slovakia) have been studied using CL, LA-ICP-MS, EMPA, and oxygen isotope methods. The sapphire occurs as (1) clastic heavy mineral in the secondary sandy filling of a Pliocene alkali basaltic maar at Hajnáčka, and (2) crystals in a pyroxenebearing syenite/anorthoclasite xenolith of Pleistocene alkali basalt near Gortva. Critical evaluation of compositional diagrams (Fe, Ti, Cr, Ga, Mg contents, Fe/Ti, Cr/Ga, Ga/Mg ratios) suggests a magmatic origin for clastic blue sapphires with lower Cr and Mg, but higher Fe and Ti concentrations in comparison to the grey-pink and pink varietes, as well as similar compositional trends with blue sapphire from the Gortva magmatic xenolith. Moreover, blue sapphires show similar δ18O values: 5.1 ‰ in the Gortva xenolith, 3.8 and 5.85 ‰ in the Hajnáčka placer, closely comparable to mantle to lower crustal magmatic rocks. On the contrary, pink and grey-pink sapphires show higher Cr and Mg, but lower Fe and Ti contents and their composition points to a metamorphic (metasomatic) origin.

Baker J. A., Macpherson C. G., Menzies M. A., Thirlwall M. F., Al-Kadasi M. & Mattey D. 2000: Resolving crustal and mantle contributions to continental flood volcanism, Yemen: constraints from mineral oxygen isotope data. J. Petrology 41, 1805-1820.

Böhmer M. & Šímová M. 1976: Contact-metasomatic aureole of Miocene intrusives in the Kremnica Mountains. Acta Geol. Geogr. Univ. Comen. Geol. 30, 119-137 (in Slovak).

Brousse R. & Varet J. 1966: Les trachytes du Mont-Dore et du Cantal septentrional et leurs enclaves. Bull. Soc. Géol. France 8, 246-262.

Coenraads R. R., Vichit P. & Sutherland F. L. 1995: An unusual sapphire-zircon-magnetite xenolith from the Chanthaburi Gem Province, Thailand. Mineral. Mag. 59, 465-479.

Derco J., Kozáč J. & Očenáš D. 1977: New data about minerals and genesis of secondary quartzites of the Kapka locality in central Vihorlat. Miner. Slovaca 9, 185-205 (in Slovak, English summary).

Ďuďa R., Černý P., Kaličiak M., Kaličiaková E., Tözsér J., Ulrych J. & Veselovský F. 1981: Mineralogy of northern part of the Slanské Mountains. Mineralia Slovaca — Monograph, 2, Bratislava, 1-99 (in Slovak, English summary).

Eiler J. M., Farley K. A., Valley J. W., Hauri E., Craig H., Hart S. R. & Stolper E. M. 1997: Oxygen isotope variations in ocean island basalt phenocrysts. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 61, 2281-2293.

Fiala F. 1954: Some xenoliths of andesites from the Slovak Midmountains. Sbor. Ústř. Úst. Geol. Odd. Geol. 21, 309-357 (in Czech).

Garnier V., Ohnenstetter D., Giuliani G., Fallick A. E., Trong T. P., Quang V. H., Van L. P. & Schwarz D. 2005: Basalt petrology, zircon ages and sapphire genesis from Dak Nong, southern Vietnam. Mineral. Mag. 69, 21-38.

Giuliani G., Fallick A. E., Garnier V., France-Lanord Ch., Ohnenstetter D. & Schwarz D. 2005: Oxygen isotope composition as a tracer for the origins of rubies and sapphires. Geology 33, 249-252.

Giuliani G., Ohnenstetter D., Garnier V., Fallick A. E., Rakotondrazafy M. & Schwarz D. 2007: The geology and genesis of gem corundum deposits. In: Groat L. A. (Ed.): The geology of gem deposits. Mineral. Assoc. Canada Short Course Ser. 37, 23-78.

Giuliani G., Fallick A. E., Ohnenstetter D. & Pegere G. 2009: Oxygen isotopes composition of sapphires from the French Massif Central: implications for the origin of gem corundum in basaltic fields. Miner. Deposita 44, 221-231.

Giuliani G., Lasnier B., Ohnenstetter D., Fallick A. E. & Pegere G. 2010: Les Gisements de corindon de France. Règne Minér. 93, 5-23.

Graham I., Sutherland L., Zaw K., Nechaev V. & Khanchuk A. 2008: Advances in our understanding of the gem corundum deposits of the West Pacific continental margins intraplate basaltic fields. Ore Geol. Rev. 34, 200-215.

Gregáňová M. 2002: Sapphire and associated minerals from the Hajnáčka. Unpubl. MSc. Thesis, Dept. of Mineralogy and Petrology, Comenius University, Bratislava, 1-75 (in Slovak).

Hovorka D. & Lukáčik E. 1972: Xenoliths in andesites of the Massifs Karanč, Šiator (Southern Slovakia) and their geologic interpretation. Geol. Zbor. Geol. Carpath. 23, 297-303.

Hurai V., Simon K., Wiechert U., Hoefs J., Konečný P., Huraiová M., Pironon J. & Lipka J. 1998: Immiscible separation of metalliferous Fe/Ti-oxide melts from fractionating alkali basalt: PT-fO2 conditions and two-liquid elemental partitioning. Contr. Mineral. Petrology 133, 12-29.

Huraiová M., Konečný P., Konečný V., Simon K. & Hurai V. 1996: Mafic and salic igneous xenoliths in Late Tertiary alkaline basalts: Fuid inclusion and mineralogical evidence for a deepcrustal magmatic reservoir in the Western Carpathians. Eur. J. Mineral. 8, 901-916.

Hvožďara P. & Činčár J. 1972: Corundum: an accessory mineral in the Central Slovak neovolcanics. Zbor. Pedag. Fak. Univ. Šafár. Prír. Vedy 11, 143-157 (in Slovak).

Jackson B. 1984: Sapphire from Loch Roag, Isle of Lewis, Scotland. J. Gemmol. 19, 336-342.

Kievlenko E. Y. 2003: Geology of Gems. Ocean Pictures Ltd., Littleton, 1-432.

Kozłowski A. & Sachabiński M. 2007: Karkonosze intragranitic pegmatites and their minerals. Granitoids in Poland, AM Monograph No. 1, 155-178.

Malíková P. 1999: Origin of the alluvial sapphires from the Jizerská Louka alluvial deposit in North Bohemia, Czech Republic, Europe. Austr. Gemmol. 20, 202-206.

Marková M. & Štohl J. 1978: Some results about the solfatara formation in the Kalinka — Vígľašská Huta area. Západ. Karpaty Sér. Mineral. Petrogr. Geochem. Metalogen. 5, 109-144 (in Slovak, English summary).

Monchoux P., Fontan F., De Parseval Ph., Martin B. & Wang R. C. 2006: Igneous albitite dikes in orogenic lherzolites, western Pyrénées, France: a possible source for corundum and alkali feldspar xenocrysts in basaltic terranes. I. Mineralogical associations. Canad. Mineralogist 44, 811-836.

Oakes G. M., Barron L. M. & Lishmund S. R. 1996: Alkali basalts and associated volcaniclastic rocks as a source of sapphire in eastern Australia. Aust. J. Earth. Sci. 43, 289-298.

Peucat J. J., Ruffault P., Fritsch E., Bouhnik-Le Coz M., Simonet C. & Lasnier B. 2007: Ga/Mg ratios as a new geochemical tool to differentiate magmatic from metamorphic blue sapphires. Lithos 98, 261-274.

Pham Van L., Hoang Quang V., Garnier V., Giuliani G., Ohnenstetter D., Lhomme T., Schwarz D., Fallick A. E., Dubessy J. & Phan Trong T. 2004: Gem corundum deposits in Vietnam. J. Gemmol. 29, 129-147.

Pin Ch., Monchoux P., Paquette J. L., Azambre B., Wang R. C. & Martin R. F. 2006: Igneous albitite dikes in orogenic lherzolites, western Pyrénées, France: a possible source for corundum and alkali feldspar xenocrysts in basaltic terranes. II. Geochemical and petrogenetic considerations. Canad. Mineralogist 44, 837-850.

Pouchou J. L. & Pichoir F. 1985: "PAP" φ(ρZ) procedure for improved quantitative microanalysis. Microbeam Anal. 20, 104-105.

Rakotondrazafy M., Giuliani G., Fallick A. E., Ohnenstetter D., Andriamamonjy A., Rakotosamizanany S., Ralantoarison Th., Razanatseheno M., Offant Y., Garnier V., Maluski H., Dunaigre Ch., Schwarz D., Mercier A. & Ratrimo V. 2008: Gem corundum deposits in Madagascar: a review. Ore Geol. Rev. 34, 134-154.

Rakotosamizanany S., Giuliani G., Ohnenstetter D., Rakotondrazafy M. & Fallick A. E. 2009a: Les gisements de saphirs et de rubis associés aux basaltes alcalins de Madagascar: caractéristiques géologiques et minéralogiques. 1ère partie: Caractéristiques géologiques des gisements. Rev. Assoc. Franç. Gemmol. 169, 13-21.

Rakotosamizanany S., Giuliani G., Ohnenstetter D., Rakotondrazafy M. & Fallick A. E. 2009b: Les gisements de saphirs et de rubis associés aux basaltes alcalins de Madagascar: caractéristiques géologiques et minéralogiques. 2ème partie: Caractéristiques minéralogiques. Rev. Assoc. Franç. Gemmol. 170, 9-18.

Seifert A. V. & Hyršl J. 1999: Sapphire and garnet from Kalalani, Tanga Province, Tanzania. Gems & Gemol. 35, 108-120.

Sharp Z. D. 1990: A laser-based microanalytical method for the in situ determination of oxygen isotopes ratios in silicates and oxides. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 54, 1353-1357.

Simonet C., Paquette J. L., Pin C., Lasnier B. & Fritsch E. 2004: The Dusi (Garba Tula) sapphire deposit, Central Kenya — a unique Pan-African corundum-bearing monzonite. J. Afric. Earth Sci. 38, 401-410.

Sutherland F. L., Hoskin P. W. O., Fanning C. M. & Coenraads R. R. 1998: Models of corundum origin from alkali basaltic terrains: a reappraisal. Contr. Mineral. Petrology 133, 356-372.

Sutherland F. L., Graham I. T., Pogson R. E., Schwarz D., Webb G., Coenraads R. R., Fanning C. M., Hollis J. D. & Allen T. C. 2002: The Tumbarumba basaltic gem field, New South Wales: in relation to sapphire-ruby deposits of eastern Australia. Rec. Austral. Mus. 54, 215-248.

Sutherland F. L., Duroc-Danner J.-M. & Meffre S. 2008: Age and origin of gem corundum and zircon megacrysts from the Mercaderes-Rio Mayo area, South-West Colombia, South America. Ore Geol. Rev. 34, 155-168.

Sutherland F. L., Zaw K., Meffre S., Giuliani G., Fallick A. E., Graham I. T. & Webb G. B. 2009: Gem-corundum megacrysts from east Australian basalt fields: trace elements, oxygen isotopes and origins. Aust. J. Earth Sci. 56, 1003-1022.

Szakáll S., Udubaşa G., Ďuďa R., Kvasnytsya V., Koszowska E. & Novák M. 2002: Minerals of the Carpathians. Granit, Prague, 1-480.

Szádeczky J. 1899: The corundum occurrences in Hungary. Földt. Közl. 29, 240-252 (in Hungarian).

Uher P., Sabol M., Konečný P., Gregáňová M., Táborský Z. & Puškelová Ľ. 1999: Sapphire from Hajnáčka (Cerová Highland, southern Slovakia). Slovak Geol. Mag. 5, 273-280.

Uher P., Gregáňová G. & Szakáll S. 2006: Sapphire-bearing syenite xenolith from Gortva, Cerová Mountains, Slovakia. Acta Mineral. Petrogr. Abstr. Ser. 5, 124.

Upton B. G. J., Aspen P. & Chapman N. 1983: The upper mantle and deep crust beneath the British Isles: evidence from inclusions in volcanic rocks. J. Geol. Soc. London 140, 105-121.

Upton B. G. J., Hinton R. W., Aspen P., Finch A. & Valley J. W. 1999: Megacrysts and associated xenoliths: evidence for migration of geochemically enriched melts in the upper mantle beneath Scotland. J. Petrology 40, 935-956.

Upton B. G. J., Finch A. A. & Słaby E. 2009: Megacrysts and salic xenoliths in Scottish alkali basalts: derivatives of deep crustal intrusions and small-melt fractions from the upper mantle. Mineral. Mag. 73, 943-956.

Vass D., Bezák V., Elečko M., Konečný V., Lexa J., Pristaš J., Straka P. & Vozár J. 1992a: Geological map of Lučenská kotlina Depression and Cerová vrchovina Upland 1: 50,000. Dionýz Štúr Geological Institute, Bratislava.

Vass D., Elečko M., Bezák V., Bodnár J., Konečný V., Lexa J., Molák B., Pristaš J., Straka P., Stankovič J., Stolár M., Škvarka L., Vozár J. & Vozárová A. 1992b: Explanations to geological map of the Lučenec Basin and Cerová Highland. 1: 50,000. Dionýz Štúr Geological Institute, Bratislava, 1-196 (in Slovak).

Vass D., Konečný V., Túnyi I., Dolinský P., Balogh K., Hudáčková N., Kováčová-Slámková M. & Beláček B. 2000: Origin of the Pliocene Vertebrate bone accumulation at Hajnáčka, Southern Slovakia. Geol. Carpathica 51, 69-82.

Yui T. F., Zaw K. & Limkatrun P. 2003: Oxygen isotope composition of the Denchai sapphire, Thailand; a clue to its enigmatic origin. Lithos 67, 153-161.

Yui T. F., Wu C. M., Limtrakun P., Sricharn W. & Boonsoong A. 2006: Oxygen isotope studies on placer sapphire and ruby in the Chanthaburi-Trat alkali basaltic gemfield, Thailand. Lithos 86, 197-211.

Zaw K., Sutherland F. L., Dellapasqua F., Ryan C. G., Yui T. Z., Mernagh T. P. & Duncan D. 2006: Contrasts in gem corundum characteristics, eastern Australian basaltic fields: trace elements, fluid/melt inclusions and oxygen isotopes. Mineral. Mag. 70, 669-687.

Geologica Carpathica

The Journal of Geological Institute of Slovak Academy of Sciences

Journal Information


IMPACT FACTOR 2017: 1.169
5-year IMPACT FACTOR: 1.431

CiteScore 2017: 1.26

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2017: 0.551
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2017: 0.836

Cited By

Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 378 378 25
PDF Downloads 117 117 8