Relatively large parts of the Slovak territory are marginal regions, which in terms of the economy of ruminant rearing can effectively produce animal commodities only occasionally. The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence and aetiology of mastitis during one milking season in two sheep dairy herds of 224 (A) and 270 (B) ewes situated in the marginal parts of Slovakia. A complex examination of health status of ewes based on: the clinical examination of the udder, macroscopic evaluation of milk with the California mastitis test (CMT) and the bacteriological analysis of raw milk samples from individual halves were carried out at the beginning (April) and at the end (September) of the milking season. The prevalence of intramammary infection (IMI) in the herds of ewes (A and B) were 19.1 % and 14.3 %, respectively. In both herds we confirmed predominantly the subclinical forms of IMI. The highest percentages of aetiological agents were determined for coagulase negative staphylococci (CoNS), such as Staphylococcus chromogenes, Staphylococcus schleiferi, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus xylosus, Staphylococcus piscifermentans and Staphylococcus intermedius, the occurrences of which were determined in 41 (48.2 %) and 37 (47.9 %) positive milk samples, respectively.
1. Bergonier, D., Crémoux, R., Rupp, R., Lagriffoul, G., Erthelot, X., 2003: Mastitis of dairy small ruminants. Vet. Res., 34, 689—716.
2. Contreras, A., Sierra, D., Sanchez, A., Corrales, J. C., Marcoc, J. C., Paape, M. J., Gonzalo, C., 2007: Mastitis in small ruminant. Small Rumin. Res., 68, 145—153.
3. Fthenakis, G. C., 1994: Prevalence and aetiology of subclinical mastitis in ewes of southern Greece. Small Rumin. Res., 13, 293—300.
4. Fthenakis, G. C., 1995: California mastitis test and Whiteside test in diagnosis of subclinical mastitis of dairy ewes. Small Rumin. Res., 16, 271—276.
5. Hariharan, H., Donachie, W., Macaldowie, C., Keefe, G., 2004: Bacteriology and somatic cell counts in milk samples from ewes on a Scottish farm. Can. J. Vet. Res., 68, 188—192.
6. Hawari A. D., Obeidat, M., Awaisheh, S. Sh., Al-Daghistani, H. I., Al-Abbadi, A. A., Omar, S. S., et al., 2014: Prevalence of mastitis pathogens and their resistance against antimicrobial agents in Awassi sheep in Al-Balqa province of Jordan. Am. J. Anim. Vet. Sci., 9, 116—121.
7. Holečková, B., Kaliňačová, V., Gondol, J., Fotta, M., Holoda, E., Beličková, E., 2004: Production of enterotoxins by Staphylococcus aureus isolated from sheep milk. Bulletin of the Veterinary Institute in Pulawy, 48, 41—45.
8. Idriss, S. H., Tančin, V., Foltýs, V., Kirchnerová, K., Tančinová, D., Vršková, M., 2013: Relationship between mastitis causative pathogens and somatic cell count in milk of dairy cows. Potravinárstvo (Food Industry), 7, 207—212.
9. Kmeť, V., Bujnáková, D., 2018: Antimicrobial resistance Escherichia coli isolated from calves. Journal of Microbiology, Biotechnology and Food Sciences. 7, 412—415.
10. Lafi, S. Q., Hailat, N. Q., 1998: Bovine and ovine mastitis in Dhulia Valley of Jordan. Veterinary Archives, 68, 51—57.
11. Malinowski, E., Lassa, H., Kłossowska, A., Smulski, S., Markiewicz, H., Kaczmarowski, M., 2006: Etiological agents of dairy cows’ mastitis in western part of Poland. Pol. J. Vet. Sci., 9, 191—194.
13. Narenji S. R., Mahdavi A., Moezifar, M., 2015: Prevalence and etiology of subclinical mastitis in dairy ewes in two seasons in Semnan province, Iran. Tropical Animal Health and Production, 47, 1249—1254.
14. Ozenc, E., Seker, E., Baki Acar, D., Birdane, M. K., Darbaz I., Dogan, N., 2011: The importance of Staphylococci and threshold value of somatic cell count for diagnosis of subclinical mastitis in Pirlak sheep at mid-lactation. Reprod. Dom. Anim., 46, 970—974.
15. Spišiak, P., 1999: Agriculture in marginal areas (on the example of the White Carpathians) (In Slovak), Folia Geographica, 3, 198—203.
16. Tančin, V., Bauer, M., Holko, I., Baranovič, Š., 2016: Etiology of mastitis in ewes and possible genetic and epigenetic factors involved. Slovak J. Anim. Sci., 49, 85—93.
17. Tančin, V., Uhrinčať, M., 2014: The effect of somatic cells on milk yield and milk flow at quarter level. Veterinarija ir Zootechnika (Vet. Med. Zoot.), 66, 69—72.
18. Thorberg, B. M., Kühn, I., Aarestrup, F. M., Brändström, B., Jonsson, P., Danielsson-Tham, M. L., 2006: Pheno- and genotyping of Staphylococcus epidermidis isolated from bovine milk and human skin. Vet. Microbiol., 115, 163—172.
19. Vautor, E., Cocckfield, J., Marechal, C., Loir, Y., Le Chevalier, M., Robinson, A. D., et al., 2009: Difference in virulence between Staphylococcus aureus isolates causing gangrenous mastitis versus subclinical mastitis in a dairy sheep flock. Vet. Res., 6, 40—56.
20. Vršková, M., Tančin, V., Kirchnerová, K., Sláma, P., 2015: Evaluation of daily milk production in Tsigaia ewes by somatic cell count. Potravinárstvo (Food Industry), 9, 206—210.
21. Zadoks, R. N., Middleton, J. R., Mc Dougall, S., Katholm, J., Schukken, Y. H., 2011: Molecular epidemiology of mastitis pathogens of dairy cattle and comparative relevance to humans. Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia, 16, 4, 357—72.