The aim of this study was to demonstrate the histochemical and histopathological alterations in the livers of cows with a tendency to become emaciated (body condition score - BCS1 and 2) and a tendency to become fattened (BCS4 and 5) in comparison to the cows of average body condition (BCS3) presented as a control. The histochemical analysis (PAS reaction) showed that the influence of emaciation and fattening in our study was manifested by a decreased occurrence of glycogen and a decreased level of the PAS-positive matter in the hepatocytes of dairy cows with BCS1, 2, 4 and 5. An abundant accumulation of lipids in the form of large lipid droplets, liposomes and lipoproteins observed in the hepatocytes of emaciated and fattened (BCS1 and 5) cows may be related to moderate-severe steatosis. These observations suggest a relationship between liver steatosis and the occurrence of lipoproteins in cows with a tendency toward emaciation and fattening.
If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.
1. Alexander C. A. Hamilton R. L. Havel R. J. 1976: Subcellular localization of B apoprotein of plasma lipoproteins in rat liver. J. Cell Biol. 69 241-263.
2. Anantharaju A. Feller A. Chedid A. 2002: Aging liver. Gerontology 40 343-353.
3. Berger H. M. Den Ouden A. L Calame J. J. 1985: Pathogenesis of liver damage during parenteral nutrition: is lipofuscin a clue ? Arch. Dis. Child. 60 774-776.
4. Boshier D. P. Holloway H. Kitchin L. F. 1984: A comparison of standard lipid staining techniques used in electron microscopic studies of mammalian tissues. Stain Technol. 59 83.
5. Brizzee K. R. Ordy J. M. 1981: Cellular feature regional accumulation and prospects of modification of age pigments in mammals. In Sohal R.S. (Ed.): Age Pigments. Elsevier Biomedical Press Amsterdam Holland 102-154.
6. Brunt E. M. Tiniakos D. G. 2010: Histopathology of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. World J. Gastroenterol. 16 5286-5296.
7. Cakala S. Bieniek K. 1975: Bromsulphatalein clearance and total billirubin level in cow deprived of food and water. Zbl. Vet. Med. A 22 605-610.
8. Edmonson A. J. Lean I. J. Weaver L. D. Farver T. Webster G. 1989: A body condition scoring chart for Holstein dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 72 68-78.
9. Enwonwu C. O. Stambaugh R. Sreebny L. 1971: Synthesis and degradation of liver ribosomal RNA in fed and fasted rats. J. Nutr. 101 337-346.
10. Fon Tacer K. Rozman D. 2011: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: focus on lipoprotein and lipid deregulation. J. Lipids 2011 783-976.
11. Gumulec J. Masařík M. Křížová S. Babula P. Hrabec R. Rovný A. Masaříková M. Kizek R. 2011: Molecular mechanisms of zinc in prostate cancer. Klin. Onkol. 24 249-255.
12. Hogstrand C. Kille P. Nicholson R. I. 2009: Zinc transporters and cancer: a potential role for ZIP7 as a hub for tyrosine kinase activation. Trends Mol. Med. 15 101-111.
13. Iwata H. Tanaka H. Kanke T. Sakaguchi Y. Shibano K. Kuwayama T. Monji Y. 2010: Follicle growth and oocyte developmental competence in cows with liver damage. Reprod. Dom. Anim. 45 888-895.
14. Jean G. Lambertenghi G. Ranzi T. 1968: Ultrastructural study of the liver in hepatic porphyria. J. Clin. Pathol. 21 501-507.
15. Kuntz E Kuntz H. D. 2002: Hepatology. Principles and Practice. Springer-Verlag Heidelberg 825 pp.
16. Lehninger A. L. 1972: Lipids Lipoproteins and Membranes. Biosynthesis of Lipids. Chapter 23. In Lehninger A. L. (ed.): Biochemistry. Worth Publisher Inc. New York 202-532.
17. Li M. Song J. Mirkov S. Xiao S. Y. Hart J. Liu W. 2011: Comparing morphometric biochemical and visual measurements of macrovesicular steatosis of liver. Hum. Pathol. 42 356-360.
18. Mak K. M. Kwong A. J. Chu E. Hoo N. M. 2012: Hepatic steatosis fibrosis and cancer in elderly cadavers. Anat. Rec. 295 40-50.
19. Makovicky P. Dudova M. Tumova E. Rajmon R. Vodkova Z. 2011: Experimental study of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) on a model of starving chickens: is generalization of steatosis accompanied by fibrosis of the liver tissue ? Pathol. Res. Pract. 207 151-155.
20. März W. Scharnagl H. Mondorf U. Wieland H. Gross W. Kostner G. M. 1996: The receptor-mediated endocytosis of lipoprotein(a). Z. Gastroenterol. 34 131-138.
21. Pivko J. Makarevich A. V. Kubovičová E. Ostro A. Hegedušová Z. Louda F. 2012: Histopathological alterations in the antral ovarian follicles in dairy cows with a tendency to emaciation. Histol. Histopathol. 27 1211-1217.
22. Reid I. M. Isenor R. N. 1972: Effect of starvation on molecular bodies and rough endoplasmic reticulum in the bovine hepatocytes. Exp. Cell Res. 75 282-285.
23. Reid I. M. Collins R. A. 1980: The pathology of postparturient fatty liver in high-yielding dairy cows. Invest. Cell. Pathol. 3 237-249.
24. Reid I. M. Roberts C. J. Baird G. D. 1980: The effects of underfeeding during pregnancy and lactation on structure and chemistry of bovine liver and muscle. J. Agri. Sci. 94 239-245.
25. Savio J. D. Boland M. P. Roche J. P. 1990: Development of dominant follicles and length of ovarian cycles in postpartum dairy cows. J. Reprod. Fert. 88 581-591.
26. Schmucker D. L. 2005: Age-related changes in liver structure and function: implications for disease ? Exp. Gerontol. 40 650-659.
27. Silke V. Diskin M. G. Kenny D. A. Boland M. P. Dillon P. Mee J. F. Sreenan J. M. 2002: Extent pattern and factors associated with late embryonic loss in dairy cows. Anim. Reprod. Sci. 71 1-12.
28. Sirotkin A. V. Makarevich A. V. Makovicky P. Kubovicova E. 2013: Ovarian metabolic and endocrine indexes in dairy cows with different body condition scores. J. Anim. Feed Sci. 22 316-322.
29. Yamasaki S. K. Sakata-Sogawa A. Hasegawa T. Suzuki K. Kabu E. Sato T. et al. 2007: Zinc is a novel intracellular second messenger. J. Cell Biol. 177 637-645.
30. Zelber-Sagi S. Ratziu V. Oren R. 2011: Nutrition and physical activity in NAFLD: An overview of the epidemiological evidence. World J. Gastroenterol. 17 3377-3389.