Emulsion of Chloramphenicol: an Overwhelming Approach for Ocular Delivery

Kalpesh C. Ashara 1  and Ketan V. Shah 1
  • 1 School of Pharmacy, RK University, Rajkot-Bhavnagar highway, Rajkot, Gujarat 360020, India


Background: Ophthalmic formulations of chloramphenicol have poor bioavailability of chloramphenicol in the ocular cavity.

Aim: The present study aimed at exploring the impact of different oil mixtures in the form of emulsion on the permeability of chloramphenicol after ocular application.

Materials and methods: Selection of oil mixture and ratio of the components was made by an equilibrium solubility method. An emulsifier was chosen according to its emulsification properties. A constrained simplex centroid design was used for the assessment of the emulsion development. Emulsions were evaluated for physicochemical properties; zone of inhibition, in-vitro diffusion and ex-vivo local accumulation of chloramphenicol. Validation of the design using check-point batch and reduced polynomial equations were also developed. Optimization of the emulsion was developed by software Design® expert 6.0.8. Assessment of the osmolarity, ocular irritation, sterility testing and isotonicity of optimized batch were also made.

Results: Parker Neem®, olive and peppermint oils were selected as an oil phase in the ratio 63.64:20.2:16.16. PEG-400 was selected as an emulsifier according to a pseudo-ternary phase diagram. Constrained simplex-centroid design was applied in the range of 25-39% water, 55-69% PEG-400, 5-19% optimized oil mixture, and 1% chloramphenicol. Unpaired Student’s t-test showed for in-vitro and ex-vivo studies that there was a significant difference between the optimized batch of emulsion and Chloramphenicol eye caps (a commercial product) according to both were equally safe.

Conclusion: The optimized batch of an emulsion of chloramphenicol was found to be as safe as and more effective than Chloramphenicol eye caps.

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