Methods for eradication of the biofilms formed by opportunistic pathogens using novel techniques – A review

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Abstract

The inconvenient environmental conditions force microorganisms to colonize either abiotic surfaces or animal and plant tissues and, therefore, form more resistant structures – biofilms. The phenomenon of microbial adherence, opportunistic pathogens in particular, is of a great concern. Colonization of medical devices and biofilm formation on their surface, may lead to severe infections mainly in humans with impaired immune system. Although, current research consider various methods for prevention of microbial biofilms formation, still, once a biofilm is formed, its elimination is almost impossible. This study focuses on the overview of novel methods applied for eradication of mature opportunistic pathogens' biofilms. Among various techniques the following: cold plasma, electric field, ultrasounds, ozonated water treatment, phagotherapy, matrix targeting enzymes, bacteriocins, synthetic chemicals and natural origin compounds used for biofilm matrix disruption were briefly described.

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