Health Care Spending Structures in Poland, Latvia, Lithuania and Estonia Over the Years as Compared to Other EU Countries

Open access

Abstract

After joining the European Union in 2004, the post-communist countries have dramatically changed their structure of expenditure for medical services. The cause of this is legislative and ownership changes in the new economy. The study analyzed the expenditure on medical services in the European Union with a special focus on Poland, Latvia, Lithuania and Estonia. The European Union countries were divided into clusters using different methods, that is, Ward’s, Two Step and Centroid Clustering. In the paper, the structure and changes in health expenses were presented according to the types of expenditures over the years 2004-2015. Countries were assigned to clusters based on three variables: medical products, appliances and equipment, outpatient services and hospital services. Variables were considered as a percentage of household budget. In Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia, there is a clear increase in the outpatient services spending compared to the hospital services expenditure.

[1] Chen, J., Vargas-Bustamante, A., Novak, P., 2017. Reducing Young Adults’ Health Care Spending through the ACA Expansion of Dependent Coverage. Health Services Research, 52(5), pp.1835-1857.

[2] European Commission, 2013. Study on Corruption in the Healthcare Sector.

[3] Eurostat, 2017. Health care expenditure by financing scheme. [online] Available at: [Accessed 19 Nov. 2017].

[4] Field, A., Miles, J. and Field, Z., 2013. Discovering Statistics Using SPSS. [online] Sage, London. Available at: .

[5] Gaile-Sarkane, E. ed., 2017. 58th The International Riga Technical University ‘Scientific Conference on Economics and Entrepreneurship SCEE’ 2017. [online] Available at: .

[6] Głąbicka, K., 2012. The Protection of Health in the European Union. Studia Medyczne, 26(2), pp.93-105.

[7] Mitenbergs, U., Brigis, G., Quentin, W., 2014. Healthcare financing reform in Latvia: Switching from social health insurance to NHS and back? Health Policy, [online] 118, pp.147-152. Available at: [Accessed 6 Dec. 2017].

[8] Nieszporska, S., 2017. Priorities in the Polish health care system. The European Journal of Health Economics, [online] 18(1), pp.1-5. Available at: .

[9] O’Connor, J.S., Bankauskaite, V., 2008. Public health development in the Baltic countries (1992-2005): From problems to policy. European Journal of Public Health, [online] 18(6), pp.586-592. Available at: .

[10] OECD, 2017. Health at a Glance 2017. [online] Paris: OECD Publisher. Available at: .

[11] Mays, G.P., Mamaril, C.B., 2017. Public Health Spending and Medicare Resource Use: A Longitudinal Analysis of U.S. Communities. Health Services Research, 52, pp.2357-2377

[12] Przekota, G., Lisowska, A., 2016. The Reaction of Private Spending and Market Rates to the Changes in Public Spending. Foundations of Management, Vol. 8, No. 1, pp.203-210. http://doi.org/10.1515/fman-2016-0016.

[13] Szczepańska, K., Wiśniewska, M., 2012. Human Performance Improvement in the Health Care Organizations. Results of Empirical Study in Poland. Foundations of Management, Vol. 4, No. 2, pp.97-108. http://doi.org/10.2478/fman-2013-0013.

[14] Szetela P., 2016. Analiza finansowania ochrony zdrowia ze środków prywatnych w krajach europejskich należących do OECD. Optimum. Studia Ekonomiczne, [online] 4(82), pp.83-100. Available at: [Accessed 6 Dec. 2017].

[15] Tran, L.D., Zimmerman, F.J. Fielding, J.E. 2017. Public health and the economy could be served by reallocating medical expenditures to social programs. SSM - Population Health, 3, pp.185-191.

[16] Ward, J.H., 1963. Hierarchical Grouping to Optimize an Objective Function. Journal of the American Statistical Association, Available at: .

[17] World Health Organization, 2011. Polska: Zarys systemu ochrony zdrowia.

[18] World Health Organization, 2017. Global Health Expenditure Database. [online] Available at: [Accessed 19 Nov. 2017].

[19] Yu, H., Greenberg, M., Haviland, A., 2017. The Impact of State Medical Malpractice Reform on Individual-Level Health Care Expenditures. Health Services Research, 52(6), pp.2018-2037.

Foundations of Management

The Journal of Warsaw University of Technology

Journal Information


CiteScore 2017: 0.28

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2017: 0.198
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2017: 0.159

Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 309 309 34
PDF Downloads 199 199 17