The paper analyses biometrical and anatomical traits of wood in a leaning stem of pine trees. For study purpose, five pine trees (Pinus sylvestris L.) with a visibly leaning stem were chosen. Wood samples were taken at three different stem heights, that is, below the stem curvature, at the curvature and above the curvature. Microscopic specimens were prepared and used for the following measurements: annual rings width, tracheids diameter and tracheids wall thickness. The measurements were performed for wood located on the lower side of the leaning stem and on the opposite side. Cytochemical staining was performed to identify the occurrence of laricinan. The results showed tracheids with a rounded shape and thick cell walls, helical cavities and intercellular spaces in wood located at curvature height on the lower side of the leaning stem. These traits indicate a severe compression wood that allowed pine trees to change their stem position in relation to the vector of gravity.
Alméras T., Fournier M. 2009. Biomechanical design and long-term stability of trees: Morphological and wood traits involved in the balance between weight increase and the gravitropic reaction. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 256 (3), 370–381.
Bamber K.R. 2001. A general theory for the origin of growth stresses in the reaction wood: How trees stay upright. IAWA Journal, 22 (3), 205–212.
Broda B. 1971. Metody histochemii roślinnej. Państwowy Zakład Wydawnictw Lekarskich, Warszawa.
Du S., Yamamoto F. 2007. An overview of the biology of reaction wood formation. Journal of Integrative Plant Biology, 49 (2), 131–143.
Duncker P., Spiecker H. 2008. Cross-sectional compression wood distribution and its relation to eccentric radial growth in Picea abies [L.] Karst. Dendrochronologia, 26, 195–202.
Fagerstedt K.V., Mellerowicz E., Gorshkova T., Ruel K., Joseleau J.P. 2014. Cell wall polymers in reaction wood. In: The biology of reaction wood (eds.: B. Gardiner, J. Barnett, P. Saranpaa, J. Gril). Springer-Verlag, Berlin Heidelberg, 37–106.
Lee P.W., Eom Y.G. 1988. Anatomical comparison between compression wood and opposite wood in a branch of Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis). IAWA Journal, 9 (3), 275–284.
Lin J.X., Li Z.L. 1993. Comparative anatomy of normal wood and compression wood of masson pine (Pinus massoniana) (in Chinese with an English abstract). Acta Botanica Sinica, 35, 201–205.
Pillow M.Y., Luxford R.F. 1937. Structure, occurrence, and properties of compression wood. US Department of Agriculture.
Riech F.P., Ching K.K. 1970. Influence of bending stress on wood formation of young Douglas-Fir. Holzforschung, 24, 68–70.
Ruelle J. 2014. Morphology, anatomy and ultrastructure of reaction wood. In: The biology of reaction wood (eds.: B. Gardiner, J. Barnett, P. Saranpaa, J. Gril) Springer-Verlag, Berlin Heidelberg, 13–35.
Sinnot E.W. 1952. Reaction wood and the regulation of tree form. American Journal of Botany, 39, 69–78.
Steucek G.L., Kellogg R.M. 1972. The influence of a stem discontinuity on xylem development in Norway spruce, Picea abies. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 2, 217–222.
Rozkrut D. 2017. Mały Rocznik Statystyczny Polski 2017. Zakład Wydawnictw Statystycznych, Warszawa.
Timell T.E. 1986. Compression wood in gymnosperms. Springer-Verlag, New York.
Tulik M., Jura-Morawiec J. 2011. Reaction wood and tree crown architecture (in Polish with English summary). Sylwan, 155, 808–815.
Waterkeyn L., Caeymaex S., Decamps E. 1982. Callose in compression wood tracheids of Pinus and Larix. Bulletin de la Societe Royale de Botanique de Belgique, 115 (2), 149–155.
Westing A.H. 1961. Changes in radial symmetry in the leaders of eastern white pine following inclination. Journal of Forestry, 56, 17–19.
Westing A.H. 1965. Formation and function of compression wood in gymnosperms. The Botanical Review, 31, 381–480.
Włoch W., Hejnowicz Z. 1983. Location of laricinan in compression wood tracheids. Acta Societatis Botanicorum Poloniae, 52 (3/4), 201–203.
Yumoto M., Ishida S., Fukazawa K. 1983. Studies on the formation and structure of the compression wood cells induced by artificial inclination in young trees of Picea glauca—IV. Gradation of the severity of compression wood tracheids. Research Bulletins of the College Experiment Forests, Hokkaido University, 40, 409–454.
Zhang M., Chavan R.R., Smith B.G., McArdle B.H., Harris P.J. 2016. Tracheid cell-wall structures and locations of (1 → 4)-β-D-galactans and (1 → 3)-β-D-glucans in compression woods of radiata pine (Pinus radiata D. Don). BMC Plant Biology, 16 (1), 194.