Water repellency in soils is controlled by many different factors, basic physical and chemical properties might be considered the crucial ones. For the purpose of this study, 12 sites were selected and sampled (0–20 cm depth) in the White Carpathians. Repellency tests were conducted under laboratory conditions in triplicate using water drop penetration time (WDPT) test and the molarity of ethanol droplet (MED) test. Results of WDPT measurements showed that three samples were marked by slight to extreme water repellency. Regarding the relationship between WDPT/MED and tested soil properties, the highest value of correlation coefficient was calculated for soil organic carbon (r = 0.706; p < 0.05), suggesting there is a positive, statistically significant correlation between repellency severity and total carbon content. A negative relationship between repellency and soil reaction/silt/silt + clay contents of studied soils was found. Samples taken from the surface horizon of arable soils showed no repellency.
Bachmann J., Ellies A., Hartge K.H. 2003. Sessile drop contact angle method. In: Soil Water Repellency. Origin, assessment, occurrence, consequences, modeling, and amelioration (eds.: C.J. Ritsema, L.W. Dekker), Elsevier, The Netherlands, 57–65.
Bayer J., Schaumann G.E. 2007. Development of soil water repellency in course of isothermal drying and upon pH changes in two urban soils. Hydrological Processes, 21, 2266–2275.
Bisdom E.B.A., Dekker L.W., Schoute J.F.T. 1993. Water repellency of sieve fractions from sandy soils and relationships with organic material and soil structure. Geoderma, 56, 105–118.
Campbell R.E., Baker M.B. Jr., Ffolliott P.F., Larson F.R., Avery C.C. 1977. Wildfire effects on a ponderosa pine ecosystem: an Arizona case study. USDA Forest Service Research Paper, RM-191, 1–12.
Cerdà A., Pelayo Ó.G., Orenes F.G., Jordán A., Pereira P., Novara A., Neris J. 2015. Long-term water repellency in organic olive orchards in the Cànyoles River watershed. The impact of land management. Geophysical Research Abstracts, 17, EGU2015-15079-1.
Czachor H., Hallett P., Lichner L., Jozefaciuk G. 2013. Pore shape and organic compounds drive major changes in the hydrological characteristics of agricultural soils. European Journal of Soil Science, 64, 334–344.
Das D.K., Das B. 1972. Characterization of water-repellency in Indian soils. Indian Journal of Agricultural Science, 42, 1099–1102.
Dekker L.W., Doerr S.H., Oostindie K., Ziogas A.K., Ritsema C.J. 2001. Water repellency and critical soil water content in a dune sand. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 65 (6), 1667–1674.
Diehl D., Bayer J.V., Woche S.K., Bryant R., Doerr S.H., Schaumann G.E. 2010. Reaction of soil water repellency to artificially induced changes in soil pH. Geoderma, 158 (3/4), 375–384.
Dlapa P., Ďuriš M. 2006. Diverzita pôdneho krytu a jeho vlastností ako súčasť životného prostredia Bielych Karpát a Myjavskej pahorkatiny. Acta Environmentalica Universitatis Comenianae, 14 (2), 19–30.
Doerr S.H., 1998. On standardizing the water drop penetration time and the molarity of an ethanol droplet technique to classify soil hydrophobicity: a case study using medium textured soils. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, 23 (7), 663–668.
Doerr S.H., Blake W.H., Shakesby R.A., Stagnitti F., Vuurens S.H., Humphreys G.S., Wallbrink P. 2004. Heating effects on water repellency in Australian eucalypt forest soils and their value in estimating wildfire soil temperatures. International Journal of Wildland Fire, 13 (2), 157–163.
Doerr S.H., Shakesby R.A., Walsh R.P.D. 2000. Soil water repellency: its causes, characteristics and hydro-geomorphological significance. Earth Science Reviews, 51, 33–65.
Doerr S.H., Shakesby R.A., Dekker L.W., Ritsema C.J. 2006. Occurrence, prediction and hydrological effects of water repellency amongst major soil and land-use types in a humid temperate climate. European Journal of Soil Science, 57, 741–754.
Doerr S.H., Thomas A.D. 2000. The role of soil moisture in controlling water repellency: new evidence from forest soils in Portugal. Journal of Hydrology, 231–232, 134–147.
FAO 2006. Guidelines for soil description. 4th edition. Rome, Italy: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.
Feeney D.S., Crawford J.W., Daniell T., Hallett P.D., Nunan N., Ritz K., Rivers M., Young I.M. 2006. Three-dimensional microorganization of the soil-root-microbe system. Microbial Ecology, 52, 151–158.
Franco C.M.M., Clarke P.J., Tate M.E., Oades J.M. 2000a. Studies on non-wetting sands: II. Hydrophobic properties and chemical characterization of natural water-repellent materials in Australian sands. Journal of Hydrology, 231/232, 47–58.
Franco C.M.M., Michelsen P.P., Oades J.M. 2000b. Amelioration of water repellency: application of slow-release fertilisers to stimulate microbial breakdown of waxes. Journal of Hydrology, 231/232, 342–351.
Hammond L.C., Yuan T.L. 1969. Methods of measuring water repellency of soils. In: Proceedings of a symposium on water repellent soils (eds.: L.F. DeBano, J. Letey), May 6–10, 1968, Riverside, CA., 49–60.
Harper R.J., McKissock I., Gilkes R.J., Carter D.J., Blackwell P.S. 2000. A multivariate framework for interpreting the effects of soil properties, soil management and landuse on water repellency. Journal of Hydrology, 231/232, 371–383.
Henderson G.S., Golding D.L. 1983. The effect of slash burning on the water repellency of forest soils at Vancouver, British Columbia. Canadian Journal of Forestry Research, 13, 353–355.
Hudson R.A., Traina S.J., Shane W.W. 1994. Organic matter comparison of wettable and non-wettable soils from bentgrass sand greens. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 58, 361–367.
Johnson M.S., Lehmann J., Steenhuis T.S., de Oliveira L.V., Fernandes E.C.M. 2005. Spatial and temporal variability of soil water repellency of Amazonian pastures. Australian Journal of Soil Research, 43, 319–326.
King P.M. 1981. Comparison of methods for measuring severity of water repellence of sandy soils and assessment of some factors that affect its measurement. Australian Journal of Soil Research, 19, 275–285.
Kobayashi M., Shimizu T. 2007. Soil water repellency in a Japanese cypress plantation restricts increases in soil water storage during rainfall events. Hydrological Processes, 21 (17), 2356–2364.
Kostka S.J., Dekker L.W., Oostindie K., Ritsema C.J., Miller C.M., Karcher D.E. 2002. Advances in understanding and managing water repellent soils. In: Understanding and addressing conservation and recycled water irrigation. Conference proceedings, S.l., Irrigation Association/Omnipress, (cd-rom).
Lennartz B., Louchart X., Voltz M., Andrieux P. 1997. Diuron and simazine losses to runoff water in Mediterranean vineyards. Journal of Environmental Quality, 26, 1493–1502.
Letey J., Carrillo M.L.K., Pang X.P. 2000. Approaches to characterize the degree of water repellency. Journal of Hydrology, 231/232, 61–65.
Lewis S.A., Wu J.Q., Robichaud P.R. 2006. Assessing burn severity and comparing soil water repellency, Hayman Fire, Colorado. Hydrological Processes, 20, 1–16.
Lichner Ľ., Babejová N., Dekker L.W. 2002. Effects of kaolinite and drying temperature on the persistence of soil water repellency induced by humic acids. Rostlinná výroba, 48 (5), 203–207.
Lozano E., Jiménez-Pinilla P., Mataix-Solera J., Arcenegui V., Bárcenas G.M., González-Pérez J.A., García-Orenes F., Torres M.P., Mataix-Beneyto J. 2013. Biological and chemical factors controlling the patchy distribution of soil water repellency among plant species in a Mediterranean semiarid forest. Geoderma, 207/208, 212–220.
Ma’shum M., Tate M.E., Jones G.P., Oades J.M. 1988. Extraction and characterization of water-repellent materials from Australian soils. Journal of Soil Science, 39, 99–110.
Mataix-Solera J., Arcenegui V., Guerrero C., Mayoral A.M., Morales J., González I., García-Orenes F., Gómez I. 2007. Water repellency under different species in a calcareous forest soil in a semiarid Mediterranean environment. Hydrological Processes, 58, 1254–1259.
Mataix-Solera J., Arcenegui V., Tessler N., Zornoza R., Wittenberg L., Martínez C., Caselles P., Pérez-Bejarano A., Malkinson D., Jordán M.M. 2013. Soil properties as key factors controlling water repellency in fire-affected areas: Evidences from burned sites in Spain and Israel. Catena, 108, 6–13.
Meeuwig R.O. 1971. Infiltration and water repellency in granitic soils. USDA Forest Service Research Paper, INT-111, 1–20.
Orzechowski M., Smólczyński S. Sowiński P., Rybińska B. 2013. Water repellency of soils with various content of organic mater in north-eastern Poland. Soil Science Annual, 64 (2), 30–33.
Rodríguez-Alleres M., Varela M.E., Benito E. 2012. Natural severity of water repellency in pine forest soils from NW Spain and influence of wildfire severity on its persistence. Geoderma, 191, 125–131.
Roper M.M. 2005. Managing soils to enhance the potential for bioremediation of water repellency. Australian Journal of Soil Research, 43, 803–810.
Shakesby R.A., Doerr S.H., Walsh R.P.D. 2000. The erosional impact of soil hydrophobicity: current problems and future research directions. Journal of Hydrology, 231/232, 178–191.
Societas Pedologica Slovaca 2000. Morphogenetic Soil Classification System of Slovakia. Basal Reference Taxonomy. Soil Science and Conservation Research Institute, Bratislava.
Szatyłowicz J., Oleszczuk R., Gnatowski T., Mączyńska E. 2006. Ocena zwilżalności utworów torfowych i murszowych na podstawie pomiarów kąta zwilżania pomiędzy fazą stałą gleby a wodą. In: Właściwości fizyczne i chemiczne gleb organicznych (eds.: T. Brandyk, L. Szajdak, J. Szatyłowicz). Wyd. SGGW, Warszawa, 85–94.
Šimkovic I., Dlapa P., Šimonovičová A., Ziegler W. 2009. Water repellency of mountain forest soils in relation to impact of the katabatic windstorm and subsequent management practices. Polish Journal of Environmental Studies, 18 (3), 443–454.
Thorsen M.K., Hopkins D., McKenzie B. 2010. Sources and characteristics of water repellency in machair soil. Poster. University of Aberdeen and Scottish Crop Research Institute.
Wahl N.A. 2008. Variability of water repellency in sandy forest soils under broadleaves and conifers in north-western Jutland/Denmark. Soil and Water Research, 3 (1), 155–164.
Walkley A., Black I.A. 1934. An examination of the Degtjareff method for determining soil O.M. and a proposed modification of the chromic acid titration method. Soil Science, 37, 29–38.
Wang Z., Wu Q.J., Wu L., Ritsema C.J., Dekker L.W., Feyen J. 2000. Effects of soil water repellency on infiltration rate and flow instability. Journal of Hydrology, 231/232, 265–276.
Wylie L., Allinson G., Stagnitti F. 2001. Guidelines for the standardisation of the water drop penetration time test. 26th General Assembly of the European Geophysical Society, EGS Nice France, 26–30 March 2001, Abstracts 3, 631–633.
Zavala L.M., Cerdà A., Alanís N. 2015. Soil water repellency: current knowledge and future insights. European Geosciences Union, General Assembly 2015, 12–17 April 2015, Vienna, Austria.