Language-teaching methods such as audio-lingualism or task-based instruction have been promoted at different times as the ‘best’ way to teach a foreign language. Each such method prescribes a set of learning procedures rooted in a particular theoretical conceptualization of the nature of language and language acquisition, based on linguistic and applied linguistics research. It is suggested in this article that the principles guiding teachers in selecting procedures should not be dictated by any particular method recommended by researchers or theoreticians, but should be rather defined as a pedagogy of language teaching, shaped by various general pedagogical – not only language-learning – considerations, as well as by local factors, and determined by the teacher her- or himself.
Bell, David M. (2003). Method and postmethod: are they really so incompatible? TESOL Quarterly 37.2: 325–336.
Carless, David (2009). Revisiting the TBLT versus P-P-P debate: Voices from Hong Kong. Asian Journal of English Language Teaching 19: 49–66.
Clarke, Mark A., Alan Davis, Lynne K. Rhodes, & Elaine DeLott Baker (1996). Creating coherence: High achieving classrooms for minority students [Final report of research conducted under U.S. Department of Education, OERI. Achieving Classrooms for Minority Students (HACMS), Field Initiated Studies Program]. Denver, Colorado: University of Colorado at Denver.
Ellis, Rod (2003). Task-based Language Learning and Teaching. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Ellis, Rod (2009). Task-based language teaching: sorting out the misunderstandings. International Journal of Applied Linguistics 19.3: 221–246.
Ericsson, K. Anders, Neil Charness, Paul J. Feltovich, & Robert R. Hoffman (2006). The Cambridge Handbook of Expertise and Expert Performance. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Kumaravadivelu, B. (1994). ‘The postmethod condition: (E)merging strategies for second/foreign language teaching’. TESOL Quarterly 28.1: 27–47.
Hu, Guangwei (2002). Potential cultural resistance to pedagogical imports: the case of communicative language teaching in China. Language, Culture and Curriculum 15.2: 67–703.
Laufer, Batia (2005). Focus on form in second language vocabulary learning. EUROSLA Yearbook 5: 223–250.
Laufer, Batia, & Nancy Girsai (2008). Form-focused instruction in second language vocabulary learning: A case for contrastive analysis and translation. Applied Linguistics 27.4: 694–716.
Leaver, Betty Lou, & Jane R. Willis (2004). Task-Based Instruction in Foreign Language Education: Practices and Programs. Washington, D. C.: Georgetown University Press.
Littlewood, William (2007). Communicative and task-based language teaching in East Asian classrooms. Language Teaching 40: 243–249.
Norris, John M., & Lourdes Ortega (2001). Does type of instruction make a difference? Substantive findings from a meta-analytic review. Language Learning 51. Supplement 1: 157–213.
Nunan, David (2004). Task-based Language Teaching. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Pennycook, Alistair (1989). The concept of method, interested knowledge, and the politics of language teaching. TESOL Quarterly 23.4: 589–618.
Pishghadam, Reza, & Azizullah Mirzaee (2008). English Language teaching in postmodern era. Journal of Teaching English Language and Literature Society of Iran 2.7: 89–109.
Prabhu N. S. (1990). There is no best method - why? TESOL Quarterly 24.2: 161–176.
Rivers, Wilga (1980). Teaching Foreign Language Skills. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Robinson, Peter (2011). Task-based language learning: A review of issues. Language Learning 61 (Issue supplement s1): 1–36.
Skehan, Peter (2003). Task-based instruction. Language Teaching 36: 1–14.
Swan, Michael (2005). Legislation by hypothesis: the case of task-based instruction. Applied Linguistics 26.3: 376–401.
Ur, Penny (2002). The English teacher as professional. Richards, J. C., & Renandya, W., eds. Methodology in Language Teaching. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 399–392.
Walters, JoDee, & Neval Bozkurt (2009). The effect of keeping vocabulary notebooks on vocabulary acquisition. Language Teaching Research 13.4: 403–423.
Waters, Alan (2012). Trends and issues in ELT method and methodology. ELT Journal 66.4: 440–449.