Entrepreneurship as a Consequence of External Stimuli and/or Internal Incentives

Open access


The basic goal of this work is the cognition of fundamental entrepreneurial motives (necessity and opportunity) depending on general social and entrepreneurial opportunities according to the stages of entrepreneurial process. The work presents the results of the analysis of selected variables previously cited appearances based on data from the GEM project in 2009 for 48 countries classified into three groups according to the stages of economic development. To compare groups and establish differences, one-factor analysis of variance was used, while relationships and connections between selected features of development degrees, entrepreneurial activities and motives of entrepreneurial projects were analyzed by the Pearson correlation coefficient. The analysis of available data and selected features confirmed a great dependence of motives of entrepreneurial projects and conditions of the environment of different development degrees that determine differences to all observed features directly or indirectly connected with entrepreneurial decisions.

Acs, Z. J., Audretsch, D. B., Braunerhjelm, P. B., & Carlsson, B. (2004) The Missing Link: The Knowledge Filter and Entrepreneurship in Endogenous Growth (No. 4783). CEPR Discussion Papers

Baumol, W.J. (2003) On Austrian analysis of entrepreneurship and my own, Austiran Economics and Entrepreneurial Studies, Vol 6, pp. 57-66m Amsterdam: Elsevier Science

Bertrand, Y., (1995) Contemporary theories and practice in education. (Madison, WI: Atwood Publishing)

Birch, D. (1987) “Job Creation in America”, New York, Free Press

Block, J. Sandner, P., (2006) Necessity and Opportunity Entrepreneurs and their Duration in Self- employment: Evidence from German Micro Data, Journal of Industry, Competition and Trade (2009), 9(2): 117-337

Block, Jörn H., and Marcus Wagner (2010) “Necessity and opportunity entrepreneurs in Germany: Characteristics and earnings differentials.” Schmalenbach Business Review, April:154-174

Boyd, N. G., & Vozikis, G. S. (1994) The influence of self-efficacy on the development of entrepreneurial intentions and actions. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 18: 63-63

Caliendo, Marco, and Alexander S. Kritikos (2009) “'I want to, but I also need to': Start-ups resulting from opportunity and necessity” IZA DP No. 4661

Corbett, A. C. (2005) Experiential learning within the process of opportunity identification and exploitation. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 29(4), 473-491

Davidsson, P. (1989) Continued entrepreneurship and small firm growth. Stockholm School of Economics, The Economic Research Institute

Deli, F., (2011) Opportunity and Necessity Entrepreneurship: Local Unemployment and the Small Firm Effect, Journal of Management Policy and Practice vol. 12(4): 38-57

Drucker, P.F. (1985) Innovation & Entrepreneurship: Practice and Principles. Harper & Row, New York

Fairlie, R., W. (2011) Entrepreneurship, Economic Conditions and Great Recession, University of California, Santa Cruz

Giacomin, O., Janssen, F., Guyot, J., Lohest, O. (2011) Opportunity and/or necessity entrepreneurship? The impact of the socio-economic characteristics of entrepreneurs, MPRA Paper No. 29506

Gurtoo, A. & Williams, C.C. (2009) Entrepreneurship and the informal sector: Some lessons from India, Entrepreneurship and Innovation, 10(1): 1-8

Hessels, J., van Gelderen, M. & Thurik, R. (2008) Entrepreneurial aspirations, motivations, and their drivers, Small Business Economics, 31(3): 323-339.

Katz, J. A. (2003) The chronology and intellectual trajectory of American entrepreneurship education: 1876-1999. Journal of business venturing, 18(2): 283-300

Kirzner, I. M. (1997) Entrepreneurial discovery and the competitive market process: An Austrian approach. Journal of economic Literature, 35(1)

Lazear, E., P., (2005) Entrepreneurship. Journal of Labor Economics, 23(4): 649-680.

Leibenstein, H. (1968) “Entrepreneurship and Development,” American Economic Review, 58(2): 72-83

Levie, J. (2006) From business plans to business shaping: Reflections on an experiential new venture creation class. WP040/2006. London, UK: National Council for Graduate Entrepreneurship

Levie, J., Autio, E., (2008) A theoretical grounding and test of the Gem model, Small Business Economics, 31 (3): 235-263

Maslow A. H. (1954) Motivation and Personality. Harper and Brothers, New York

Parker, S. C. (2006) Entrepreneurship, self-employment and the labour market.Oxford handbook of entrepreneurship, 435-460

Pelham, A. M., & Wilson, D. T. (1995) A longitudinal study of the impact of market structure, firm structure, strategy, and market orientation culture on dimensions of small-firm performance. Journal of the academy of marketing science, 24(1): 27-43

Porter, M. E., & Schwab, K. (2009) The Global Competitiveness Report 2008-2009. In World Economic Forum.

Preisendörfer P. and T. Voss (1990) “Organizational mortality of small firms: The effects of entrepreneurial age and human capital.” Organizational Studies, 11:107-129

Robichaud, LeBrasseur and Nagarajan (2010) “Necessity and Opportunity-driven Entrepreneurs in Canada: An Investigation into their Characteristics and an Appraisal of the Role of Gender”, Journal of Applied Business and Economics.

Schumpeter, J.A. (1934) The Theory of Economic Development. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press

Schwab, K. (2009) Global Competitiveness Report 2009-2010. World Economic Forum.

Geneva, Switzerland. http://www.weforum.org/pdf/GCR09/GCR20092010fullreport.pdf

Slolomon, G., et al. (2002) The State of Entrepreneurship Education in the United States: A Nationwide Survey and Analysis, International Journal of Entrepreneurial Education, 1(1): 1-22

Sorgman, M. and Prakison, K. (2008) The Future is now: Preparing K-12 Teachers and Students for an Entrepreneurial Society, Journal of Entrepreneurhip Education 11, 75-86

Tan, J. (1996): “Regulatory Environment and Strategic Orientation in Transitional Economy”, Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice

Thompson, P. (2011) Necessity and Opportunity Entrepreneurs through the Business Cycle, CIRPÉE-Ivey Conference on Macroeconomics and Entrepreneurship, Montreal, May 6-7

Van Praag, C. M. and J. S. Cramer (2001) An Estimated Equilibrium Model of Business Formation and Labor Demand by Entrepreneurs, Economica 269, 45-62

Van Praag, C. M., (1996) Determinants of Successful Entrepreneurship, Amsterdam: Thesis Publishers

Von Mises, L., & Greaves, B. B. (1949) Human action. Liberty Fund, pp. 59-62

Wright, M., Hmieleski, K. M., Siegel, D. S., & Ensley, M. D. (2007) The role of human capital in technological entrepreneurship. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 31(6): 791-806

Journal Information

Cited By


All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 316 258 14
PDF Downloads 116 94 8