Health Risks of Nanotechnology

Open access

Abstract

Nanotechnology is one of the key technologies of the 21st century and is associated with high expectations. Products with completely new properties for application in medicine, science, industry and various techniques are designed. However, the larger surface area of nanoparticles makes them highly reactive compared to larger sized particles of the same chemistry resulting in both, desirable and undesirable effects. The need for toxicological data has become increasingly important, thus several international projects are ongoing throughout the European Union. The question concerning the risks for the health and environment should not be disregarded.

1. F. Dürrenberger, J. Höck and K. Höhener, Safety and Risks of Nanotechnology, Overview of completed and ongoing activities. 2005, TEMAS AG Arbon, Schweiz. p. 1-95.

2. A. Naica - Loebell. "Heftige Diskussion um Nanotechnologie", cited: 29.08.2003, www.telepolis.de, 2004.

3. A. Naica - Loebell. "Nanopartikel sind Gestaltswandler", cited: 11.02.2004, www.telepolis.de, 2003.

4. M. Yokoyama, "Drug targeting with nano-sized carrier systems", J Artif Organs, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 77-84, 2005.

5. ETC-Group. "The Big Down: Atomtech - Technologies Converging at the Nano-scale", updated: 01.06.2004, cited: 28.02.2006, www.etcgroup.org, 2003.

6. ETC-Group. "Nano´s troubled Waters", updated: 01.04.2004, cited: 01.04.2004, www.etcgroup.org, 2004.

7. A.H. Arnall. "Future Technologies, Today's Choices; Nanotechnology, Artificial Inteligence and Robotics", updated: 07.2003, cited: 28.02.2006, www.greenpeace.org.uk/MultimediaFiles/Live/FullReport/5886.pdf, 2003.

8. A. Rigos, "Nano - Tech", Greenpeace Magazin, 2003.

9. T. Harper and A. Dunn. "Nanotechnologies: Risks and Rewards", updated: 06.2005, cited: 28.02.2006, www.cientifica.com, 2005.

10. C. Lautenwasser. "Small size that matter: Opportunities and risks of nanotechnologies", updated: 03.06.2005, cited: 28.02.2006, www.allianz.com, 2005.

11. W. Luther, Technological Analysis of the VDI Technologiezentrums GmbH. 2004, VDI: Düsseldorf.

12. A. Hett, "Nanotechnologie - kleine Teilchen - große Zukunft", Schweizerische Rückversicherungs - Gesellschaft, pp. 1 - 55, 2004.

13. W. Baumgartner, B. Jäckli, B. Schmithüsen and F. Weber, Nanotechnology in der Medizin. 2003, Basics: Zürich.

14. J. Macoubrie, Informed public perceptions of nanotechnology and trust in government. 2005, North Carolina State University: Raleigh, NC.

15. C.O. Robichaud, M.R. Wiesner, D. Tanzie and U. Weilenmann, "Relative risk analysis of several manufactured nanomaterials: An insurance industry context", Environmental Science and Technology, vol. 39, no. 22, pp. 8985-8994, 2005.

16. A. Dowling. "Nanoscience and nanotechnologies: opportunities and uncertainties", updated: 29.07.2004, cited: 28.02.2006, www.nanotec.org.uk/finalReport.htm, 2004.

17. Truville. "Response to the Royal Society and Royal Academy of Engineering Report", updated: 25.02.2005, cited: 28.02.2006, www.dti.gov.uk/ministers/speeches/sainsbury250205.html, 2005.

18. T.F. Barker. "Nanotechnology and the poor: Opportunities and Risks", cited: 28.02.2006, www.nanoandthepoor.org/, 2005.

19. CRN. "Nanotechnology and Risk", cited: 28.02.2006, www.nanoforum.org, 2004.

20. R.J. Aitken, K.S. Creely and C.L. Tran. "Research Report for the Health and Safety Executive", cited: 28.02.2006, www.iom-world.org, 2004.

21. EU Commission. "Towards a European Strategy for Nanotechnology", cited: 28.02.2006, http://www.cordis.lu/nanotechnology/actionplan.htm, 2004.

22. E. Schuler, "The public has its own view of what is a risk [2]", Nature, vol. 425, no. 6956, pp. 343, 2003.

23. E. Schuler, "Zukunftsblick auf die Risikokommunikation im Bereich Nanotechnologie", IPTS Report, 2004.

24. W.S. Beckett, D.F. Chalupa, A. Pauly-Brown, D.M. Speers, J.C. Stewart, M.W. Frampton, M.J. Utell, L.S. Huang, C. Cox, W. Zareba and G. Oberdörster, "Comparing inhaled ultrafine versus fine zinc oxide particles in healthy adults: A human inhalation study", American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, vol. 171, no. 10, pp. 1129-1135, 2005.

25. D. Bernstein, V. Castranova, K. Donaldson, B. Fubini, J. Hadley, T. Hesterberg, A. Kane, D. Lai, E.E. McConnell, H. Muhle, G. Oberdorster, S. Olin and D.B. Warheit, "Testing of fibrous particles: Short-term assays and strategies - Report of an ILSI Risk Science Institute Working Group", Inhalation Toxicology, vol. 17, no. 10, pp. 497-537, 2005.

26. E. Oberdörster, "Manufactured nanomaterials (fullerenes, C60) induce oxidative stress in the brain of juvenile largemouth bass", Environmental Health Perspectives, vol. 112, no. 10, pp. 1058-1062, 2004.

27. G. Oberdörster, "Pulmonary effects of inhaled ultrafine particles", International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, vol. 74, no. 1, pp. 1-8, 2001.

28. G. Oberdörster, "Toxicokinetics and effects of fibrous and nonfibrous particles", Inhalation Toxicology, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 29-56, 2002.

29. G. Oberdörster, "Toxicology of ultrafine particles: In vivo studies", Philosophical Transactions: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences (Series A), vol. 2000, no. 1775, pp. 2719-2740, 2000.

30. G. Oberdörster, A. Elder, R. Gelein, Z. Sharp, V. Atudorei, W. Kreyling and C. Cox, "Translocation of inhaled ultrafine particles to the brain", Inhalation Toxicology, vol. 16, no. 6-7, pp. 437-445, 2004.

31. G. Oberdörster, J.N. Finkelstein, C. Johnston, R. Gelein, C. Cox, R. Baggs and A.C. Elder, "Acute pulmonary effects of ultrafine particles in rats and mice", Research report (Health Effects Institute), no. 96, pp. 5-74; disc. 75, 2000.

32. G. Oberdörster, E. Oberdörster and J. Oberdörster, "Nanotoxicology: An emerging discipline evolving from studies of ultrafine particles", Environmental Health Perspectives, vol. 113, no. 7, pp. 823-839, 2005.

33. G. Oberdörster and M.J. Utell, "Ultrafine particles in the urban air: To the respiratory tract - Ang beyond?" Environmental Health Perspectives, vol. 110, no. 8, 2002.

34. D.B. Warheit, B.R. Laurence, K.L. Reed, D.H. Roach, G.A. Reynolds and T.R. Webb, "Comparative pulmonary toxicity assessment of single-wall carbon nanotubes in rats", Toxicol Sci, vol. 77, no. 1, pp. 117-125, 2004.

35. V.L. Colvin, "The potential environmental impact of engineered nanomaterials", Nat Biotechnol, vol. 21, no. 10, pp. 1166-1170, 2003.

36. N. Boeing. "Achtung Nanoteilchen!" cited: 19.04.2007, www.FTD.DE/NANOTECH, 2005.

37. N. Boeing. "Die Risiken der Nanotechnik", updated: 19.04.2007, cited: 19.04.2007, http://events.ccc.de/congress/2005/fahrplan/attachments/585-paper_TheTruthAboutNanotechnology.pdf, 2005.

38. P.H. Hoet, I. Bruske-Hohlfeld and O.V. Salata, "Nanoparticles - known and unknown health risks", J Nanobiotechnology, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 12, 2004.

39. D. Emerich and C. Thanos, "Targeted nanoparticle-based drug delivery and diagnosis", Journal of Drug Targeting, vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 163-183, 2007.

40. V. Torchilin, "Targeted pharmaceutical nanocarriers for cancer therapy and imaging", AAPS Journal, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. E128-147, 2007.

41. K.H. Haas, F. Hutter, P. Warnke and J. Wengel. "Produktion von und mit Nanomaterialien, Untersuchung des Forschungs- und Handlungsbedarfs für industrielle Produktion", updated: 13.07.2003, cited: 28.02.2006, http://www.isc.fraunhofer.de/german/improfil/presse/publikationen/media/nanotechnologie.pdf, 2003.

42. T. Masciangioli and W.X. Zhang, "Environmental technologies at the nanoscale", Environ Sci Technol, vol. 37, no. 5, pp. 102A-108A, 2003.

43. N. Schnorbach. "Forschung &Technik, Die Nano-Invasion", updated: 06.2006, cited: 19.04.2006, http://www.securvita.de/fileadmin/user_upload/PDF-Dateien/auszuege_SECURVITAL/0606-6-10.pdf, 2006.

44. W. Leuchtenberger. "Mannometer Nanometer: Die faszinierende Welt der Zwerge", cited: 28.02.2006, www.bunsen.de/jdc/woche24.htm, 2003.

45. Achema. "Nanotechnologie: Kleine Teilchen - große Leistung", cited: 28.02.2006, http://aurum2.dechema.de/achema2003/new/homepage/homed.htm, 2003.

46. T. Engelhardt, "Technische Anwendung von Kunststoff Nanocompositen", SKZ - Tagung Chancen der Nanotechnologie: Vom Nanofüllstoff zum Nanowerkstoff, 2002.

47. R. Wengenmayr. "Nanoteilchen nach einfacher Rezeptur", cited: 28.02.2006, www.welt-der-physik.de, 2002.

48. T. Fleischer. "Technikfolgenabschätzungen zur Nanotechnologie - inhaltliche und konzeptionelle Überlegungen", updated: 05.12.2002, cited: 28.02.2006, www.itas.fzk.de/tatup/023/flei02a.htm, 2002.

49. BASF. "Nanotechnology at BASF", cited: 28.02.2006, www.basf.de/en/corporate/innovationen/praesentiert/0210/?id=V00--b2TwRJ*-bsf400, 2002.

50. P. Lorenzini. "Funktionale Textilien: Zukunft dank winzigen Teilchen", cited: 28.02.2006, www.empa.ch, 2003.

51. U. Fink, R.E. Davebport, B. S.L. and Y. Ishikawa, "Nanoscale chemicals and materials: An overview on technology, products and applications", SRI International Report - Speciality Chemicals: Nanotechnology, 2002.

52. Fraunhofer-Verbund. "Polymere Oberflächen", cited: 19.09.2007, http://www.polo.fraunhofer.de/html/isc_wuerzburg.html, 2007.

53. BMBF. "Nano in der Zahncreme - ein Nano - Wirkstoff imitiert die Natur", updated: 22.08.2006, cited: 22.08.2006, www.bmbf.de, 2005.

54. BMBF. "Nanotechnologie in der Medizin - ein ganz besonderer Überzug", updated: 03.08.2005, cited: 28.02.2006, www.bmbf.de, 2005.

55. A.M. Dyer, M. Hinchcliffe, P. Watts, J. Castile, I. Jabbal-Gill, R. Nankervis, A. Smith and L. Illum, "Nasal delivery of insulin using novel chitosan based formulations: a comparative study in two animal models between simple chitosan formulations and chitosan nanoparticles", Pharmaceutical Research, vol. 19, no. 7, pp. 998-1008, 2002.

56. T. Nagamoto, Y. Hattori, K. Takayama and Y. Maitani, "Novel chitosan particles and chitosan-coated emulsions inducing immune response via intranasal vaccine delivery", Pharmaceutical Research, vol. 21, no. 4, pp. 671-674, 2004.

57. C.L. Graff and G.M. Pollack, "Nasal drug administration: Potential for targeted central nervous system delivery", Pharmaceutical Sciences, vol. 94, no. 6, pp. 1187-1195, 2005.

58. A. Elder, R. Gelein, V. Silvia, T. Feikert, L. Opanashuk, J. Carter, R. Potter, A. Maynard, Y. Ito, J. Finkelstein and G. Oberdörster, "Translocation of Inhaled Ultrafine Manganese Oxide Particles to the Central Nervous System ", Environmental Health Perspectives, vol. 114, pp. 1172 -1178, 2006.

59. T.C. Long, N. Saleh, R.D. Tilton, G.V. Lowry and B. Veronesi, "Titanium dioxide (P25) produces reactive oxygen species in immortalized brain microglia (BV2): implications for nanoparticle neurotoxicity", Environmental Science & Technology, vol. 40 (14), pp. 4346-4352, 2006.

60. P. Borm, D. Robbins, S. Haubold, T. Kuhlbusch, H. Fissan, K. Donaldson, R. Schins, V. Stone, W. Kreyling, J. Lademann, J. Krutmann, D. Warheit and E. Oberdörster, "The potential risks of nanomaterials: a review carried out for ECETOC", Particle and Fibre Toxicology, vol. 3, pp. 1-45, 2006.

61. The Royal Society and the Royal Academy, "Possible adverse health, environmental and safety impacts", Nanoscience and Nanotechnologies, pp. 1 - 50, 2004.

62. G. Oberdörster, J. Ferin and B. Lehnert, "Correlation between particle size, in vivo particel persistence, and lung injury", Environmental Health Perspectives, vol. 102, pp. 173-179, 1994.

63. A.M. Knaapen, C. Albrecht, A. Becker, D. Hohr, A. Winzer, G.R. Haenen, P.J. Borm and R.P. Schins, "DNA damage in lung epithelial cells isolated from rats exposed to quartz: role of surface reactivity and neutrophilic inflammation", Carcinogenesis, vol. 23, no. 7, pp. 1111-1120, 2002.

64. C.L. Tran, D. Buchanan, R.T. Cullen, A. Searl, A.D. Jones and K. Donaldson, "Inhalation of poorly soluble particles. II. Influence Of particle surface area on inflammation and clearance", Inhal Toxicol, vol. 12, no. 12, pp. 1113-1126, 2000.

65. R. Niedner and J. Ziegenmeyer, "Dermatika", Wissenschaftliche Verlagsgesellschaft mbH Stuttgart, pp. 3 -24, 251-256, 1992.

66. J. Lademann, "Risikobewertung von Nanopartikeln in kosmetischen Produkten", 2007.

67. D. Muenter. "Nano - Sonnencreme", updated: 06.08.2002, cited: 28.02.2006, www.quarks.de, 2005.

68. S.S. Tinkle, J.M. Antonini, B.A. Rich, J.R. Roberts, R. Salmen, K. DePree and E.J. Adkins, "Skin as a route of exposure and sensitization in chronic beryllium disease", Environ Health Perspect, vol. 111, no. 9, pp. 1202-1208, 2003.

69. J. Schulz, H. Hohenberg, F. Pflucker, E. Gartner, T. Will, S. Pfeiffer, R. Wepf, V. Wendel, H. Gers-Barlag and K.P. Wittern, "Distribution of sunscreens on skin", Adv Drug Deliv Rev, vol. 54 Suppl 1, pp. S157-163, 2002.

70. T. Butz. "Die Haut als Barriere für Nanopartikel, Nanoderm Projekt", updated: 28.03.2006, cited: 28.03.2006, http://www.bfr.bund.de/cm/232/die_haut_als_barriere_fuer_nanopartikel.pdf, 2006.

71. EU Commission. "Nanomedizin- Toxizität unter der Nano-Lupe", updated: 25.01.2006, cited: 25.01.2006, www.ec.europa.eu/research/rtdinfo/47/01/article_3570_de.html, 2006.

72. M.A. Mitchnick, D. Fairhurst and S.R. Pinnell, "Microfine zinc oxide (Z-cote) as a photostable UVA/UVB sunblock agent", J Am Acad Dermatol, vol. 40, no. 1, pp. 85-90, 1999.

73. S.R. Pinnell, D. Fairhurst, R. Gillies, M.A. Mitchnick and N. Kollias, "Microfine zinc oxide is a superior sunscreen ingredient to microfine titanium dioxide", Dermatol Surg, vol. 26, no. 4, pp. 309-314, 2000.

74. M.H. Tan, C.A. Commens, L. Burnett and P.J. Snitch, "A pilot study on the percutaneous absorption of microfine titanium dioxide from sunscreens", Australas J Dermatol, vol. 37, no. 4, pp. 185-187, 1996.

75. P. Jani, G.W. Halbert, J. Langridge and A.T. Florence, "Nanoparticle uptake by the rat gastrointestinal mucosa: quantitation and particle size dependency", J Pharm Pharmacol, vol. 42, no. 12, pp. 821-826, 1990.

76. L. Groche, "Winzlinge auf dem Vormarsch - Viele Fragen kaum Antworten", Die Verbraucherinitiative, 2007.

77. Deutsche-Bundesregierung. "Antwort - Potenziale und Risiken der Nanotechnologie", updated: 31.07.2006, cited: 31.07.2006, http://dip.bundestag.de/btd/16/023/1602322.pdf, 2006.

78. L. Araujo, R. Löbenberg and J. Kreuter, "Influence of the surfactant concentration on the body distribution of nanoparticles", Drug Targeting, vol. 6, no. 5, pp. 373-385, 1999.

79. J. Kreuter, "Drug targeting with nanoparticles", European Journal of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics, vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 253-256, 1994.

80. J. Kreuter, U. Tauber and V. Illi, "Distribution and elimination of poly(methyl-2-14C-methacrylate) nanoparticle radioactivity after injection in rats and mice", Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, vol. 68, no. 11, pp. 1443-1447, 1979.

81. R. Löbenberg, L. Araujo, J. Kreuter, H. Von Briesen and E. Rodgers, "Body distribution of azidothymidine bound to hexyl-cyanoacrylate nanoparticles after i.v. injection to rats", Journal of Controlled Release, vol. 50, no. 1-3, pp. 21-30, 1998.

82. R. Löbenberg, J. Kreuter and J. Maas, "Improved body distribution of 14C-labelled AZT bound to nanoparticles in rats determined by radioluminography", Journal of Drug Targeting, vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 171-179, 1998.

83. R. Reszka, I. Fichtner, J. Richter, P. Beck, J. Kreuter and M. Hentschel, "Body distribution of free, liposomal and nanoparticle-associated mitoxantrone in B16-melanoma-bearing mice", Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, vol. 280, no. 1, pp. 232-237, 1997.

84. H. Krug. "Auswirkungen nanotechnologischer Entwicklungen auf die Umwelt", cited: 28.02.2006, http://www.scientificjournals.com/sj/uwsf/abstract/ArtikelId/7641, 2005.

85. J. Davis. "Blut - Hirn -Schranke", cited: 28.02.2006, www.lrz-muenchen.de, 2005.

86. P. Deetjen, Physiologie. 1 ed. 1992, München: Urban & Schwarzenberg.

87. H. Krug. "Neues aus der Nanotechnologie", cited: 17.04.2007, http://www.scientificjournals.com/sj/uwsf/Pdf/aId/8728, 2006.

88. W. Löhr. "Sonnencreme könnte Hirn aufweichen", updated: 11.07.2006, cited: 11.07.2006, www.taz.de/pt/2006/07/11/a0108.1/textdruck, 2006.

89. Edge Materials. "Framework 7 to keepEurope at the Forefront of Nanotechnology", updated: 25.08.2007, cited: 25.08.2007, http://www.materials-edge.net/html/modules.php?op=modload&name=News&file=article&sid=275&mode=thread&order=0&thold=0, 2005.

90. Austrian Journal. "Kleine Moleküle - große Erfolge, Europa soll in der Nanotechnologie ENTL 1 (2009), 001, 18 weiter ganz vorne bleiben", cited: 28.02.2006, www.oe-journal.at, 2005.

91. EU Commission. "The Sixth Framework Programme in Brief", cited: 06.06.2008, http://ec.europa.eu/research/fp6/pdf/fp6-in-brief_en.pdf, 2002.

92. Nanoportal. "Internationale Projekte", updated: 25.08.2007, cited: 25.08.2007, http://www.nanotech-hessen.de/infoplattform-nanorisiken/akteure-und-aktivitaeten-zu-risikothemen/internationale-projekte, 2006.

93. M. Leykauf. "EU-funded Nanosafe project publishes study on the chances and risks of nanoparticles", cited: 28.02.2006, www.nanogate.de/de/presse/unternehmensmeldungen/downloads/pm_nanogate_24-5-2004.pdf, 2004.

94. Azonano. "Nanocyl to participate in nanotox project", updated: 25.08.2007, cited: 25.08.2007, http://www.azonano.com/news.asp?newsID=1130, 2005.

95. V. Howard. "Nanotox", cited: 28.02.2006, www.i-sis.org.uk/nanotox.php, 2003.

96. Nanoderm. "Nanoderm- Quality of skin as a barrier to ultra-fine particles", cited: 28.02.2006, http://www.uni-leipzig.de/~nanoderm, 2005.

97. Austrian Research Promotion Agency. "Europäisches Forschungsrahmenprogramm", cited: 05.06.2008, http://rp7.ffg.at/RP7.aspx, 2007.

98. Austrian Research Promotion Agency. "FFG", cited: 05.06.2008, http://www.ffg.at, 2007.

99. EU Commission. "FP7 in Brief", updated: 27.05.2008, cited: 27.05.2008, http://cordis.europa.eu/fp7/home_en.html, 2007.

100. J. Balbus, R. Denison, F. Florini and S. Walsh. "Getting nanotechnology right the first time", updated: 27.08.2007, cited: 27.08.2007, http://issues.org/21.4/balbus.html, 2007.

101. S. Loeffler. "Wo geht´s hier nach Tschernanobyl", cited: 28.02.2006, www.falter.at, 2004.

102. T.J. Brunner, P. Wick, P. Manser, P. Spohn, R.N. Grass, L.K. Limbach, A. Bruinink and W.J. Stark, "In Vitro Cytotoxicity of Oxide Nanoparticles: Comparison to Asbestos, Silica, and the Effect of Particle Solubility", Environmental Science & Technology, vol. 40, no. 14, pp. 4374 - 4381, 2006.

Journal Information

Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 343 335 22
PDF Downloads 86 83 8