A Comparative Analysis of Evolutionary Algorithms for Synthesis of Scanned Linear Array of Mutually Coupled Parallel Dipole Antennas

Open access

Abstract

This paper presents a comparative analysis of three evolutionary algorithms, namely, Backtracking Search Algorithm, Cuckoo Search Algorithm and Artificial Bee Colony Algorithms for synthesis of a scanned linear array of uniformly spaced parallel half wavelength dipole antennas. Here, antenna parameters, namely Side Lobe Level, reflection coefficient and wide null depth are taken into consideration for comparison between algorithms. In addition to it, statistical parameters, namely best fitness value, mean and standard deviation of the fitness values obtained from algorithms are compared. Mutual coupling that exists among the antenna elements is included in obtaining radiation patterns and the self-impedances along with the mutual impedances are calculated by induced Electro-Motive Force method. Two different examples are shown in this paper to validate the effectiveness of the utilized approach. Although, this approach is applied to a linear array of dipole antennas; this can be utilized for other array geometries as well.

[1] C. A. Balanis, Antenna Theory: Analysis and Design, 2nd ed. Singapore: John Wiley and Sons (Asia), 2003.

[2] R.L.Haupt, “Phase-only adaptive nulling with a genetic algorithm”, IEEE Trans. on Antennas and Propagation, vol.45, no.6, pp.1009-1015, 1997.

[3] H. Steyskal, R.A. Shore, R.L. Haupt, “Methods for null control and their effects on the radiation pattern,” IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, vol. 34, no. 3, pp.404-409, 1986.

[4] R.Vescovo, “Null synthesis by phase control for antenna arrays”, Electronics Letter, vol.36, no.3, pp.198-199, 2000.

[5] H. Steyskal, “Simple method for pattern nulling by phase perturbation,” IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, vol. 31, no. 1, pp. 163-166, 1983.

[6] G.K. Mahanti, A. Chakraborty and S. Das, “Design of Phase- Differentiated Reconfigurable Array Antennas with Minimum Dynamic Range Ratio,” IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, vol.5, no.1, pp. 262-264, 2006.

[7] W. Boeringer Daniel and H. Werner Douglas, “Particle Swarm Optimization versus Genetic Algorithms for Phased Array Synthesis,” IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, vol. 52, no. 3, pp. 771-779, 2004.

[8] H.singh, H.L. Sneha, and R. M. Jha, “Mutual Coupling in Phased Arrays,” International Journal of Antennas and Propagation, volume 2013, Article ID 348123, pp.1-23, 2013.

[9] M. Thevenot, C. Menudier, A. El Sayed Ahmad, G. Z. El Nashef, F. Fezai, Y. Abdallah, E. Arnaud, F. Torres, and T. Monediere, “Synthesis of Antenna Arrays and Parasitic Antenna Arrays with Mutual Couplings,” International Journal of Antennas and Propagation, vol. 2012, pp.1-22, 2012.

[10] K. M. Lee and R. S. Chu, “Analysis of Mutual Coupling between a Finite Phased Array of Dipoles and Its Feed Network,” IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, vol. 36, no. 12, 1681-1699, December 1988.

[11] B. K. J. C. Nauwelaers and A. R. Van de Capelle. “Integrals for the Mutual Coupling between Dipoles or Between Slots: With Without Complex Conjugate,” IEEE Trans. on Antennas and Propagation, vol.36, no. 10, pp. 1375-1381, October 1988.

[12] F. Najib, R. Mohamad, and V. Patrick, “Effects of Mutual coupling in Phased Arrays with Butler Network Feed,” in Proceedings of the 17th International Conference on Applied Electromagnetics and Communications, pp. 374-379, Dubrovnik, Croatia, October 2003.

[13] G.K.Mahanti, S. Das, A.Chakrabarty, J.C. Brégains, and F.Ares, “Design of Reconfigurable Array Antennas with Minimum Variation of Active Impedances,” IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, vol. 5, no.1, pp. 541-544, 2006.

[14] P. Civicioglu, “Backtracking Search Optimization Algorithm for numerical optimization problems,” Applied Mathematics and Computation, vol. 219, no. 15, pp. 8121-8144, 2013.

[15] R. Muralidaran, Vallavaraj.A, G.K. Mahanti and Ananya mahanti, “QPSO versus BSA for failure correction of linear array of mutually coupled parallel dipole antennas with fixed side lobe level and VSWR,” Advances in Electrical Engineering, vol. 2014, Article ID 858290, pp. 1-7, September 2014.

[16] M.K. Ahirwal, Anil Kumar, and G.K. Singh, “EEG/ERP Adaptive Noise Canceller Design with Controlled Search Space (CSS) Approach in Cuckoo and Other Optimization Algorithms,” IEEE/ACM Transactions on Computational Biology and Bioinformatics, vol. 10, no. 6, November/December 2013.

[17] Xin-She Yang and Suash Deb, “Cuckoo Search via Le ׳vy Flights,” World Congress on Nature & Biologically Inspired Computing (NaBIC), pp. 210-214, 2009.

[18] Xin-She Yang and Suash Deb, “Engineering Optimisation by Cuckoo Search,” International journal on Mathematical Modelling and Numerical Optimisation, vol. 1, no. 4, pp. 330-343, 2010.

[19] R. Muralidaran, A.Vallavaraj, Hemant Patidar and G.K. Mahanti, “Failure correction of linear array of antenna with multiple null placement using cuckoo search algorithm,” ICTACT Journal on Communication Technology, vol. 5, no.1, pp. 877-881, March 2014.

[20] D. Karaboga and B. Basturk, “A powerful and efficient algorithm for numerical function optimization: Artificial bee colony (ABC) algorithm,” J. Global Optim., vol. 39, pp. 459-471, 2007.

[21] D. Karaboga and B. Akay, “A comparative study of artificial bee colony algorithm,” Appl. Math. Compu. vol. 214, pp. 108-132, August 2009.

[22] A.Banharnsakun, T. Achalakul, and B. Sirinaovakun, “The best-so-far selection in artificial bee colony algorithm,” Appl. Soft Comput., vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 2888-2901, Mar. 2011.

[23] L.L. Wang and D.G. Fang, and W.X. Sheng, “Combination of Genetic algorithm (GA) and Fast fourier transform (FFT) for Synthesis of Arrays, ”Microwave and Optical Technology Letters, vol. 37, no. 1, pp. 56-59, April 2003.

[24] W. P. M. N. Keizer, “Fast Low Side lobe Synthesis for Large Planar Array Antennas Utilizing successive Fast Fourier Transforms of the Array Factor,” IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, vol. 55, no.3, pp. 715-722, 2007.

[25] Will P. M. N. Keizer, “Low-Sidelobe Pattern Synthesis Using Iterative Fourier Techniques Coded in MATLAB,” IEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine, vol. 51, no.2, pp.137-150, April 2009.

International Journal of Electronics and Telecommunications

The Journal of Committee of Electronics and Telecommunications of Polish Academy of Sciences

Journal Information


CiteScore 2016: 0.72

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2016: 0.248
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2016: 0.542

Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 125 125 12
PDF Downloads 50 50 8