Insights into the impacts of three current environmental problems on Amphibians

Open access


Global warming, light pollution and noise are common human-induced environmental problems that are escalating at a high rate. Their consequences on wildlife have mostly been overlooked, with the exception of a few species with respect to climate change. The problems often occur simultaneously and exert their negative effects together at the same time. In other words, their impacts are combined. Studies have never focused on more than one problem, and so, such combined effects have never been understood properly. The review addresses this lacuna in the case of amphibians, which are a highly vulnerable group. It divides the overall impacts of the problems into seven categories (behaviour, health, movement, distribution, phenology, development and reproductive success) and then assesses their combined impact through statistical analyses. It revealed that amphibian calling is the most vulnerable aspect to the combined impacts. This could provide important input for conservation of amphibians.

Araujo, M.B., Bravo, D.N., Diniz-Filho, J.A.F., Haywood, A.M., Valdes, P.J. & Rahbek, C. (2008) Quaternary climate changes explain diversity among reptiles and amphibians. Ecography, 31, 8-15.

Araujo, M.B., Thuiller, W. & Pearson, R.G. (2006) Climate warming and the decline of amphibians and reptiles in Europe. Journal of Biogeoraphy, 33, 1712-1728.

Aube´ M. (2015) Physical behaviour of anthropogenic light propagation into the nocturnal environment. Philosophical Transactions of Royal Society B, 370, 20140117.

Baker, B.J. & Richardson, J.M.L. (2006) The effect of artificial light on male breeding-season behaviour in green frogs, Rana clamitans melanota. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 84(10), 1528-1532.

Barber, J.R., Crooks, K.R. & Fristrup, K.M. (2010) The costs of chronic noise exposure for terrestrial organisms. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 25, 180-189.

Bee, M. & Swanson, E.M. (2007) Auditory masking anuran advertisement calls by road traffic noise. Animal Behaviour, 74(6), 1765-1776.

Beebee, T.J.C. & Griffiths, R.A. (2005) The amphibian decline crisis: A watershed for conservation biology?. Biological Conservation, 125(3), 271-285.

Beebee, T.J.C. (1995) Amphibian breeding and climate. Nature, 374, 219-220.

Bennie, J., Davies, T.W., Duffy, J.P., Inger, R. & Gaston, K.J. (2013) Contrasting trends in light pollution across Europe based on satellite observed night time lights. Science Reports, 4, 3789.

Benning, T.L., LaPointe, D., Atkinson, C.T. & Vitousek, P.M. (2002) Interactions of climate change with biological invasions and land use in the Hawaiian Islands: modeling the fate of endemic birds using a geographic information system. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA, 99(22), 14246-14249.

Berglund, B. & Lindvall, T. (Eds.). (1995) Community noise. Stockholm, Sweden: World Health Organization.

Bickford, D., Howard, S.D., Ng, D.J.J. & Sheridan, J.A. (2010) Impacts of climate change on the amphibians and reptiles of Southeast Asia. Biodiversity Conservation, 19, 1043-1062.

Blaustein, A.R. & Olson, D.H. (1991) Amphibian population declines. Science, 253, 1467.

Blaustein, A.R., Walls, S.C., Bancroft, B.A., Lawler, J.J., Searle, C.L. & Gervasi, S.S. (2010) Direct and indirect effects of climate change on amphibian populations. Diversity, 2, 281-313.

Brumm, H. (2010) Anthropogenic noise: implications for conservation. In: M.D. Breed & J. Moore (Eds.), Encyclopedia of animal behavior (pp. 89-93). Oxford: Academic Press.

Buchanan, B.W. (1993) Effects of enhanced lighting on the behavior of nocturnal frogs. Animal Behaviour, 45, 893-99.

Buchanan, B.W. (2006) Observed and potential effects of artificial night lighting on anuran amphibians. In: C. Rich & T. Longcore (Eds), Ecological consequences of artificial night lighting (pp. 192- 218). Washington DC, USA: Island Press.

Campbell, H.W. (1969) The effect of temperature on the auditory sensitivity of vertebrates. Physiological Zoology, 42, 183-210.

Caorsi, V.Z., Both, C., Cechin, S., Antunes, R. & Borges-Martins, M. (2017) Effects of traffic noise on the calling behavior of two Neotropical hylid frogs. PLoS ONE, 12(8), e0183342.

Carey, C. & Alexander, M.A. (2003) Climate change and amphibian declines: is there a link?. Diversity and Distribution, 9, 111-121.

Chadwick, E.A, Slater, F.M. & Ormerod, S.J. (2006) Inter- and intra specific differences in climatically mediated phenological change in coexisting Triturus species. Global Change Biology, 12, 1069-1078.

Chepesiuk, R. (2009) Missing the dark: health effects of light pollution. Environmental Health Perspectives, 117(1), A20-A27.

Cinzano, P. (2002) Light poIIution and the situation of the night sky in Europe, in ItaIy and in Veneto. In: P. Cinzano (Ed.), Light pollution and the protection of the night environment, Proceedings of the International Dark sky Association Regional Meeting “Venice: Let’s save the night”, Thiene, Italy (pp. 91-101).

Crump, M.L., Hensley, F.R. & Clark, K.L. (1992) Apparent decline of the golden toad: underground or extinct? Copeia, 413-420.

Cunnington, G.M. & Fahrig, L. (2010) Plasticity in the vocalizations of anurans in response to traffic noise. Acta Oecologica, 36:463-470.

Cunnington, G.M. & Fahrig, L. (2012) Mate attraction by male anurans in the presence of traffic noise. Animal Conservation, 16(3), 275-285.

D’Amen, M. & Bombi, P. (2009) Global warming and biodiversity: evidence of climate-linked amphibian declines in Italy. Biological Conservation, 142, 3060-3067.

Dananay, K.L. (2013) Morphological and physiological effects of ecological light pollution on mammals and amphibians in Pennsylvania. Master of Science Dissertation. College of Agricultural Sciences, The Pennsylvania State University, USA.

Daszak, P., Berger, L., Cunningham, A.A., Hyatt, A.D., Green, D.E. & Speare, R. (1999) Emerging infectious diseases and amphibian population declines. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 5(6), 735-748.

Davies, T.W., Bennie, J., Inger, R., de Ibarra, N.H. & Gaston, K.J. (2013) Artificial light pollution: are shifting spectral signatures changing the balance of species interactions?. Global Change Biology, 19, 1417-1423.

Duan, R., Kong, X., Huang, M., Varela, S. & Ji, X. (2016) The potential effects of climate change on amphibian distribution, range fragmentation and turnover in China. Peer J, 4, e2185.

Dutta, H. (2018) Insights into the phenomenon of alien plant invasion and its synergistic interlinkage with three current ecological issues. Journal of Asia-Pacific Biodiversity 11: 188-198.

East, E.M. (1918) The role of reproduction in evolution. American Naturalist, 52(618/619), 273-289.

Eggert, C. (2004) Sex determination: the amphibian models. Reproduction, Nutrition and Development, 44, 539-549.

Engbrecht, N.J., Heemeyer, J.L., Murphy, C.G., Stiles, R.M., Swan, J.W. & Lannoo, M.J. (2015) Upland calling behavior in Crawfish Frogs (Lithobates areolatus) and calling triggers caused by noise pollution. Copeia, 103(4), 1048- 1057.

Engelbrecht, F., Adegoke, J., Bopape, M., Naidoo, M., Garland, R., Thatcher, M., McGregor, J., Katzfey, J., Werner, M. & Ichoku, C. (2015) Projections of rapidly rising surface temperatures over Africa under low mitigation. Environmental Research Letters, 10(8), 085004.

Feder, M.E. & Burggren, W.W. (Eds.). (1992) Environmental physiology of the amphibians. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Feuka, A.B., Hoffmann, K.E., Hunter, M.L. Jr. & Calhoun, A.J.K. (2017) Effects of Light Pollution on Habitat Selection in Post-Metamorphic Wood Frogs (Rana sylvatica) and Unisexual Blue-spotted Salamanders (Ambystoma laterale × jeffersonianum). Herpetological Conservation Biology, 12(2), 470-476.

Foden, W., Mace, G., Vié, J.C., Angulo, A., Butchart, S., DeVantier, L., Dublin, H., Gutsche, A., Stuart, S. & Turak, E. (2008) Species susceptibility to climate change impacts. In: J.C. Vié, C. Hilton-Taylor & S.N Stuart (Eds.), The 2008 review of The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Gland, Switzerland: IUCN.

Foden, W.B., Butchart, S.H.M., Stuart, S.N., Vie´, J-C., Akcakaya, H.R., et al. (2013) Identifying the world’s most climate change vulnerable species: a systematic trait-based assessment of all birds, amphibians and corals. PLoS ONE, 8(6), e65427.

Francis, C.D., Kleist, N.J., Ortega, C.P. & Cruz, A. (2012) Noise pollution alters ecological services: enhanced pollination and disrupted seed dispersal. Proceedings of the Royal Society B, 279, 2727-2735.

Fuller, R.A., Warren, P.H. & Gaston, K.J. (2007) Daytime noise predicts nocturnal singing in urban robins. Biology Letters, 3, 368-370.

Gaston, K.J. & Bennie, J. (2014) Demographic effects of artificial nighttime lighting on animal populations Environmental Reviews, 22, 323-330.

Gaston, K.J., Bennie, J., Davies, T.W. & Hopkins, J. (2013) The ecological impacts of nighttime light pollution: a mechanistic appraisal. Biological Reviews, 88, 912-927.

Gerhardt, H.C. & Mudry, K.M. (1980) Temperature effects on frequency preferences and mating call frequencies in the green treefrog Hyla cinerea (Anura: Hylidae). Journal of Comparative Physiology A, 137, 1-6.

Gibbs, J.P. & Breisch, A.R. (2001) Climate warming and calling phenology of frogs near Ithaca, New York, 1900−1999. Conservation Biology, 15, 1175-1178.

Grafe, T.U., Preininger, D., Sztatecsny, M., Kasah, R., Dehling, J.M., et al. (2012) Multimodal Communication in a Noisy Environment: A Case Study of the Bornean Rock Frog Staurois parvus. PLoS ONE, 7(5), e37965.

Green, D.M. (2016) Amphibian breeding phenology trends under climate change: predicting the past to forecast the future. DOI:

Guisan, A., Tingley, R., Baumgartner, J.B., Naujokaitis-Lewis, I., Sutcliffe, P.R., Tulloch, A.I.T., Regan, T.J., Brotons, L., McDonald-Madden, E., Mantyka-Pringle, C., Martin, T.G., et al. (2013) Predicting species distributions for conservation decisions. Ecology Letters, 16(12), 1424-1435.

Halfwerk, W. & Slabbekoorn, H. (2015) Pollution going multimodal: the complex impact of the human-altered sensory environment on animal perception and performance. Biology Letters, 11, 20141051.

Hall, A.S. (2016) Acute artificial light diminishes Central Texas anuran calling behavior. The American Midland Naturalist, 175(2), 183-193.

Halverson, M.A., Skelly, D.K., Kiesecker, J.M. & Freidenburg, L.K. (2003) Forest mediated light regime linked to amphibian distribution and performance. Oecologia, 134(3), 360-364.

Harvell, C.D., Mitchell, C.E., Ward, J.R., Altizer, S., Dobson, A.P. & Ostfeld, R.S. (2002) Climate warming and disease risks for terrestrial and marine biota. Science, 296(5576), 2158-2162.

Heyer, W.R., Rand, A.S., Goncalvez da Cruz, C.A. & Peixoto, O.L. (1988) Decimations, extinctions and colonizations of frog populations in southeast Brazil and their evolutionary implications. Biotropica, 20, 230-235.

Hocking, D.J. & Babbitt, K.J. (2014) Amphibian contributions to ecosystem services. Herpetological Conservation Biology, 9(1), 1-17.

Hölker, F., Wolter, C., Perkin, E.K. & Tockner, K. (2010) Light pollution as a biodiversity threat. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 25, 681-682.

Hopkins, W.A. (2007) Amphibians as models for studying environmental change. ILAR Journal, 48(3), 270-277.

Horváth, G., Kriska, G., Malik, P. & Robertson, B. (2009) Polarized light pollution: a new kind of ecological photopollution. Frontiers in Ecology and Environment, 7(6), 317-325.

Hoskin, C.J. & Goosem, M.W. (2010) Road impacts on abundance, call traits, and body size rainforest frogs in northeast Australia. Ecology and Society, 15(3), 15.

Hutchison, V.H. & Dupré, K. (1992) Thermoregulation. In: M.E. Feder & W.W. Burggren (Eds.), Environmental physiology of the amphibian (pp. 206-249). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

International Dark-Sky Association. (2010) Visibility, environmental, and astronomical issues associated with blue-rich white outdoor lighting.

IPCC. (2007) Assessment of observed changes and responses in natural and managed systems. In: C. Rosenzweig, G. Casassa, D.J. Karoly, A. Imeson, C. Liu, et al. (Eds.), Climate change 2007: impacts, adaptation and vulnerability: Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Jaeger, R.G. & Hailman, J.P. (1973) Effects of intensity on the phototactic responses of adult anuran amphibians: a comparative survey. Z Tierpsychol, 33, 352-407.

Kaiser, K., Devito, J., Jones, C.G., Marentes, A., Perez, R., Umeh, L., Weickum, R.M., McGovern, K.E., Wilson, E.H. & Saltzman, W. (2015) Effects of anthropogenic noise on endocrine and reproductive function in White’s treefrog, Litoria caerulea. Conservation Physiology, 3, DOI: 10.1093/conphys/cou061.

Kaiser, K., Scofield, D.G., Alloush, M., Jones, R.M., Marczak, S., Martineau, K., Oliva, M.A. & Narins, P.M. (2010) When sounds collide: the effect of anthropogenic noise on a breeding assemblage of frogs in Belize, Central America. Behaviour, 148, 215-232.

Kerby, J.L., Richards-Hrdlicka, K.L., Storfer, A. & Skelly, D.K. (2010) An examination of amphibian sensitivity to environmental contaminants: are amphibians poor canaries?. Ecology Letters, 13(1), 60-67.

Kiesecker, J.M., Blaustein, A.R. & Belden, L.K. (2001) Complex causes of amphibian population declines. Nature, 410, 681-684.

Kruger, J.D.D. & Du Preez, L.H. (2016) The effect of airplane noise on frogs: a case study on the Critically Endangered Pickersgill’s reed frog (Hyperolius pickersgilli). Ecological Research, 31(3), 393-405.

Kruger, J.D.D., Hamer, A.J. & Du Preez, L.H. (2015) Urbanization affects frog communities at multiple scales in a rapidly developing African city. Urban Ecosystems, DOI: 10.1007/s11252-015-0443-y.

Kundzewicz, Z.W., Mata, L.J., Arnell, N.W., Döll, P., Kabat, P., Jiménez, B., Miller, K.A. (2007) Freshwater resources and their management. In: T. Oki, Z. Sen, I.A. Shiklomanov, M.L. Parry, O.F. Canziani, J.P. Palutikof, P.J. van der Linden & C.E. Hanson (Eds.), Climate change 2007: impacts, adaptation and vulnerability: Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Kurvers, R.H.J.M. & Hölker, F. (2015) Bright nights and social interactions: a neglected issue. Behavioral Ecology, 26(2), 334-339.

Kusano, T. & Inoue, M. (2008) Long-term trends toward earlier breeding of Japanese amphibians. Journal Herpetology, 42, 608-614.

Lawler, J.J., Shafer, S.L., Bancroft, B.A. & Blaustein, A.R. (2010) Projected climate impacts for the amphibians of the Western Hemisphere. Conservation Biology, 24(1), 38-50.

Lawler, J.J., Shafer, S.L., White, D., Kareiva, P., Maurer, E.P., Blaustein, A.R., Bartlein, PJ. (2009) Projected climate-induced faunal change in the Western Hemisphere. Ecology, 90, 588-597.

Lehtinen, R.M., Galatowitsch, S.M. & Tester, J.R. (1999) Consequences of habitat loss and fragmentation for wetland amphibian assemblages. Wetlands, 19(1), 1-12.

Longcore, T. & Rich, C. (2004) Ecological light pollution. Frontiers in Ecology and Environmental Science, 2(4), 191-198.

Lukanov, S., Simeonovska-Nikolova, D. & Tzankov, N. (2014) Effects of traffic noise on the locomotion activity and vocalization of the Marsh Frog, Pelophylax ridibundus. North-Western Journal of Zoology, 10(2), 359-364.

Maynard, R.J., Aall, N.C., Daniel Saenz, D., Hamilton, P.S. & Kwiatkowski, M.A. (2016) Road-edge effects on herpetofauna in a lowland Amazonian rainforest. Tropical Conservation Science, 9(1), 264-290.

Mazerolle, M.J. & Vos, C.C. (2006) Choosing the safest route: frog orientation in an agricultural landscape. Journal of Herpetology, 40(4), 435-441.

Mazerolle, M.J. (2001) Amphibian activity, movement patterns, and body size in fragmented peat bogs. Journal of Herpetology, 35(1), 13-20.

Mazerolle, M.J. (2004) Amphibian road mortality in response to nightly variations in traffic intensity. Herpetologica, 60(1), 45-53.

Mazerolle, M.J., Huot, M. & Gravel, M. (2005) Behavior of amphibians on the road in response to car traffic. Herpetologica, 61(4), 380-388.

McGregor, P.K., Horn, A.G., Leonard, M.L. & Thomsen, F. (2013) Anthropogenic Noise and Conservation. In: H. Brumm (Ed.), Animal communication and noise (pp. 409-444). Heidelberg, Berlin, Germany: Springer.

McMahon, T.A., Rohr, J.R. & Bernal, X.E. (2017) Light and noise pollution interaction to disrupt interspecific interactions. Ecology, 98(5), 1290-1299.

McMenamin, S.K., Hadly, E.A. & Wright, C.K. (2008) Climatic change and wetland desiccation cause amphibian decline in world’s oldest national park. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA, 105, 16988-16993.

Meyer, J.L., Sale, M.J., Mulholland, P.K. & Hoff, N.L. (1999) Impacts of climate change on aquatic ecosystem functioning and health. Journal of the American Water Resource Association, 35, 1373-1386.

Milanovich, J.R., Peterman, W.E., Nibbelink, N.P. & Maerz, J.C. (2010) Projected loss of a salamander diversity hotspot by consequence of projected global climate change. PLoS ONE, 5(8), e12189.

Mills, N.E. & Barnhart, M.C. (1999) Effects of hypoxia on embryonic development in two Ambystoma and two Rana species. Physiological and Biochemical Zoology, 72, 179-188.

Munguı'a, M., Rahbek, C., Rangel, T.F., Diniz-Filho, J.A.F. & Arau´jo, M.B. (2012) Equilibrium of global amphibian species distributions with climate. PLoS ONE, 7(4), e34420.

Nelson, D.V., Klinck, H., Carbaugh-Rutland, A., Mathis, C.L., Morzillo, A.T. & Garcia, T.S. (2017) Calling at the highway: The spatiotemporal constraint of road noise on Pacific chorus frog communication. Ecology and Evolution, 7, 429-440.

Ochoa-Ochoa, L.M., Rodrı´guez, P., Mora, F., Flores-Villela, O. & Whittaker, R.J. (2012) Climate change and amphibian diversity patterns in Mexico. Biological Conservation, 150(1), 94-102.

Olson, D.H. & Saenz, D. (2013) Climate change and amphibians. US Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Climate Change Resource Center.

Parris, K.M., Kirsten, M., Velik-Lord, M. & North, J.M.A. (2009) Frogs call at a higher pitch in traffic noise. Ecology and Society, 14, 25.

Penna, M., Alicia Plaza, A. & Moreno-Gómez, F.N. (2013) Severe constraints for sound communication in a frog from the South American temperate forest. Journal Comparative Physiology A, 199(8), 723-733.

Perry, G., Buchanan, B.W., Fisher, R.N., Salmon, M. & Wise, S.E. (2008) Effects of artificial night lighting on amphibians and reptiles in urban environments. In: J.R.E Mitchell, R.E. Jung Brown & B. Bartholomew (Eds.), Urban herpetology (pp. 239-256). Salt Lake City, Utah, USA: Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles.

Petren, K. & Case, T.J. (1996) An experimental demonstration of exploitation competition in an ongoing invasion. Ecology, 77(1), 118-132.

Pounds, J.A., Bustamante, M.R., Coloma, L.A., Consuegra, J.A., Fogden, M.P.L., et al. (2006) Widespread amphibian extinctions from epidemic disease driven by global warming. Nature, 439, 161-167.

Raap, T., Pinxtenm R. & Eens, M. (2015) Light pollution disrupts sleep in free-living animals. Science Reports, 5, 13557.

Rand, A.S., Bridarolli, M.E., Dries, L. & Ryan, M.J. (1997) Light levels influence female choice in Tungara frogs: predation risk assessment? Copeia, 447-50.

Raxworthy, C.J., Pearson, R.G., Rabibisoa, N., Rakotondrazafy, A.M., Ramanamanjato, J.B., Raselimanana, A.P., Wu, S., Nussbaum, R.A. & Stone, D.A. (2008) Extinction vulnerability of tropical montane endemism from warming and upslope displacement: a preliminary appraisal for the highest massif in Madagascar. Global Change Biology, 14, 1703-1720.

Rich, C. & Longcore, T. (Eds.). (2006) Ecological consequences of artificial night lighting. Washington DC, USA: Island Press.

Rios-López, N. (2008) Effects of increased salinity on tadpoles of two anurans from a Caribbean coastal wetland in relation to their natural abundance. Amphibia-Reptilia, 29, 7-18.

Roca, I.T., Desrochers, L., Giacomazzo, M., Bertolo, A., Bolduc, P., et al. 2016. Shifting song frequencies in response to anthropogenic noise: a meta-analysis on birds and anurans. Behavioral Ecology, 27(5), 1269-1274.

Rome, L.C., Stevens, E.D. & John-Alder, H.B. (1992) The influence of temperature and thermal acclimation on physiological function. In: M.E. Feder & W.W. Burggren (Eds.), Environmental physiology of the amphibian (pp. 183-295). Chicago, USA: University of Chicago Press.

Ryan, M.J. & Brenowitz, E.A.B. (1985) The role of body size, phylogeny, and ambient noise in the evolution of bird song. American Naturalist, 126, 87-100.

Schwartz, J.J. & Bee, M.A. (2013) Anuran acoustic signal production in noisy environments. In: H. Brumm (Ed.), Animal communication and noise (pp. 91-132). Heidelberg, Berlin, Germany: Springer.

Seimon, T.A., Seimon, A., Daszak, P., Halloy, S.R.P., Schloegel, L.M., Aguliar, C.A., Sowell, P., Hyatt, A.D., Konecky, B. & Simmons, J.E. (2007) Upward range extension of Andean anurans and chytridiomycosis to extreme elevations in response to tropical deglaciation. Global Change Biology, 13, 288-299.

Shoemaker, V.H., Hillyard, S.D., Jackson, D.C., McClanahan, L.L., Withers, P.C. & Wygoda, M.L. (1992) Exchange of water, ions, and respiratory gases in terrestrial amphibians. In: M.E Feder & W.W. Burggren (Eds.), Environmental physiology of the amphibian (pp. 125-150). Chicago, USA: University of Chicago Press.

Skelly, D.K., Freidenburg, L.K. & Kiesecker, J.M. (2002) Forest canopy and the performance of larval amphibians. Ecology, 83(4), 983-992. Stuart, S.N., Janice, S., Chanson, J.S., Cox, N.A., Young, B.E., Rodrigues, A.S.L., et al. (2004) Status and trends of amphibian declines and extinctions worldwide. Science, 306(5702), 1783-1786.

Sun, J.W.C. & Narins, P.M. (2005) Anthropogenic sounds differentially affect amphibian call rate. Biological Conservation, 121, 419-427.

Tennessen, J.B., Parks, S.E. & Langkilde, T. (2014) Traffic noise causes physiological stress and impairs breeding migration behaviour in frogs. Conservation Physiology, DOI: 10.1093/conphys/cou032.

Troïanowski, M., Mondy, N., Dumet, A., Arcanjo, C. & Lengagne, T. (2017) Effects of traffic noise on tree frog stress levels, immunity, and color signaling. Conservation Biology, 31(5), 1132-1140.

Tuttle, M.J. & Ryan, M.J. (1982) The role of synchronized calling, ambient light, and ambient noise, in anti-bat predator behavior of a tree frog. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 11(2), 125-131.

Tuxbury, S.M. & Salmon, M. (2005) Competitive interactions between artificial lighting and natural cues during sea-finding by hatchling marine turtles. Biological Conservation, 121, 311-316.

US EPA. (2016) Climate change: greenhouse gas emissions: greenhouse gases overview. Retrieved from 2016

US Geological Survey. (2014) A few winners but many more losers: Southwestern bird and reptile distributions to shift as climate changes. Retrieved from

van Grunsven, R.H.A., Creemers, R., Joosten, K., Donners, M. & Veenendaal, E.M. (2017) Behaviour of migrating toads under artificial lights differs from other phases of their life cycle. Amphibia-Reptilia, 38(1), 49-55.

Vargas-Salinas, F. & Ame´zquita, A. (2013) Stream noise, hybridization, and uncoupled evolution of call traits in two lineages of poison frogs: Oophaga histrionica and Oophaga lehmanni. PLoS ONE, 8(10), e77545.

Vargas-Salinas, F. & Amézquita, A. (2013) Traffic noise correlates with calling time but not spatial distribution in the threatened poison frog Andinobates bombetes. Behaviour, 150(6), 569-584.

Vargas-Salinas, F., Cunnington, G.M., Amézquita, A. & Fahrig, L. (2014) Does traffic noise alter calling time in frogs and toads? A case study of anurans in Eastern Ontario, Canada. Urban Ecosystems, 17(4), 945-953.

Vélez, A., Joshua, J., Schwartz, J.J., Mark, A. & Bee, M.A. (2013) Anuran acoustic signal perception in noisy environments. In: H. Brumm (Ed.), Animal communication and noise (pp. 133-185). Heidelberg, Berlin, Germany: Springer.

Victor, D., Zhou, G.D., Ahmed, E.H.M., Dadhich, P.K., Olivier, J.G.J., Rogner, H.H., Sheikho, K. & Yamaguchi, M. (2014) Introductory chapter. In: O. Edenhofer, O.R. Pichs-Madruga, Y. Sokona, E. Farahani, S. Kadner, K. Seyboth, A. Adler, I. Baum, S. Brunner, P. Eickemeier, B. Kriemann, J. Savolainen, S. Schlömer, C. von Stechow, T. Zwickel & J.C. Minx (Eds.), Climate Change 2014: Mitigation of Climate Change. Contribution of Working Group III to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (pp. 111-150). Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, USA: Cambridge University Press.

Wassersug, R.J. & Seibert, E.A. (1975) Behavioral responses of amphibian larvae to variation in dissolved oxygen. Copeia, 86-103.

Weygoldt, P. (1989) Changes in the composition of mountain stream frog communities in the Atlantic Mountains of Brazil: Frogs as indicators of environmental deteriorations? Neotropical Fauna and Environment, 24, 249-255.

Whelan, C.J., Wenny, D.G. & Marquis, R.J. (2008) Ecosystem services provided by birds. Annals of New York Academy of Sciences, 1134, 25-60.

Whitfield, S.M., Bell, K.E., Philippi, T., Sasa, M., et al. (2007) Amphibian and reptile declines over 35 years at La Selva, Costa Rica. Proceedings of the National Academy Sciences USA, 104, 8352-8356.

Journal Information

CiteScore 2018: 0.84

Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2018: 0.365


All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 594 594 27
PDF Downloads 468 468 23