Influence of Treated Sewage Discharge on the Benthos Ciliate Assembly in the Lowland River

Open access

Abstract

This paper presents results of the studies of ciliate assemblage in benthos of lowland river influenced by sewage discharged from the municipal wastewater treatment plant. During the presented research the 47 ciliate species, including 45 species from the benthos of the river and 18 from the activated sludge of aeration chamber were identified. Only two species registered in the activated sludge were not observed in the river. Against the background of the lowest number of species in the point located in the distance of 50 m below the discharge of sewage the maximum amount and biomass of these species were observed. Whereas, 200 m below the discharge the decrease in number and biomass of ciliate to the level noted for location before the discharge was observed. Thus, generalizing, one may state that influence of municipal WWTP sewage discharge for ciliate assemblage in the river’s benthos was clearly visible but local.

[1] Gücker, B, Brauns M, Pusch MT. Effects of wastewater treatment plant discharge on ecosystem structure and function of lowland streams. J N Am Benthol Soc. 2006;25:313-329. DOI: 10.1899/0887-3593(2006)25[313:EOWTPD]2.0.CO;2.

[2] Smith VH, Tilman GD, Nekola JC. Eutrophication: Impacts of excess nutrient inputs on freshwater, marine, and terrestrial ecosystems. Environ Pollut. 1999;100(1-3):179-196. DOI: 10.1016/S0269-7491(99)00091-3.

[3] Strom PF, Matulewich VA, Finstein MS. Concentrations of nitrifying bacteria in sewages, effluents and a receiving stream and resistance of these organisms to chlorination. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1976;31:731-737. http://aem.asm.org/content/31/5/731.full.pdf.

[4] Courchaine RJ. Significance of nitrification in stream analysis: effects on the oxygen balance. J Water Pollut Control Fed. 1968;40:835-847. http://www.jstor.org/stable/25036332.

[5] Rueda J, Camacho A, Mezquita F, Hernandez R, Roca JR. Effects of episodic and regular sewage discharges on the water chemistry and macroinvertebrate fauna of a Mediterranean stream. Water Air Soil Pollut. 2002;140:425-444. DOI: 10.1023/A:1020190227581.

[6] Dyer SD, Peng C, McAvoy DC, Fendinger NJ, Masscheleyn P, Castillo LV, et al. The influence of untreated wastewater to aquatic communities in the Balatuin River, The Philippines. Chemosphere. 2003:52:43-53. DOI: 10.1016/S0045-6535(03)00269-8.

[7] Spänhoff B, Bischof R, Böhme A, Lorenz S, Neumeister K, Nöthlich A, et al. Assessing the impact of effluents from a modern wastewater treatment plant on breakdown of coarse particulate organic matter and benthic macroinvertebrates in a lowland river. Water Air Soil Pollut. 2007;180:119-129. DOI: 10.1007/s11270-006-9255-2.

[8] Wakelin SA, Colloff MJ, Kookana RS. Effect of wastewater treatment plant effluent on microbial function and community structure in the sediment of a freshwater stream with variable seasonal flow. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2008;74(9):2659-2668. DOI: 10.1128/AEM.02348-07.

[9] Drury B, Rosi-Marshall E, Kelly JJ. Wastewater treatment effluent reduces the abundance and diversity of benthic bacterial communities in urban and suburban rivers. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2013;79(6):1897-905. DOI: 10.1128/AEM.03527-12.

[10] Rajfur M, Klos A, Waclawek M. Algae utilization in assessment of the large Turawa Lake (Poland) pollution with heavy metals. J Environ Sci Health. Part A. 2011;46(12):1401-1408. DOI: 10.1080/10934529.2011.606717.

[11] Rajfur M, Klos A. Use of algae in active biomonitoring of surface waters. Ecol Chem Eng S. 2014;21(4):561-576. DOI: 10.1515/eces-2014-0040.

[12] Berger H, Foissner W. Illustrated guide and ecological notes to ciliate indicator species (Protozoa, Ciliophora) in running waters, lakes, and sewage plants. In: Steinberg C, editor. Handbuch Angewandte Limnologie. Ecomed Verlag; 2003. DOI: 10.1002/9783527678488.hbal2003005.

[13] Serrano S, Arregui L, Perez-Uz B, Calvo P, Guinea A. Guidelines for the Identification of Ciliates in Wastewater Treatment Plants. 2008. London: IWA Publishing. http://www.iwapublishing.com/books/9781843391715/guidelines-identification-ciliates-wastewater-treatment-plants.

[14] Carter JL, Resh VH, Hannaford MJ, Myers MJ. Macroinvertebrates as biotic indicators of environmental quality. In: Hauer FR, Lamberti GA, editor. Methods in Stream Ecology. Amsterdam: Academic Press; 2006;805-833. https://sdp2013.files.wordpress.com/2013/12/bahan-bacaan-dr-bu-maya-methods-in-streamecology.pdf.

[15] Wright IA, Chessman BC, Fairweather PG, Benson LJ. Measuring the impact of sewage effluent on the macroinvertebrate community of an upland stream: the effect of different levels of taxonomic resolution and quantification. Aust J Ecol. 1995;20:142-149. DOI: 10.1111/j.1442-9993.1995.tb00528.x.

[16] EU Water Framework Directive 2000/60/EC. http://ec.europa.eu/health/endocrine_disruptors/docs/wfd_200060ec_directive_en.pdf.

[17] Kominkova D, Stransky D, St'astna G, Caletkova J, Nabelkova J, Handova Z. Identification of ecological status of stream impacted by urban drainage. Water Sci Technol. 2005;51(2): 249-256. http://wst.iwaponline.com/content/51/2/249.

[18] Gorzel M, Kornijow R. The response of zoobenthos to "natural channelization" of a small river. Ecohydrol Hydrobiol. 2007;7(1):59-70. DOI: 10.1016/S1642-3593(07)70189-1.

[19] Kushwaha VB, Agrahari M. Effect of domestic sewage on zooplankton community in River Rapti at Gorakhpur, India. World J Zool. 2014;9(2): 86-92. DOI: 10.5829/idosi.wjz.2014.9.2.83293.

[20] Lewis MA. Impact of municipal wastewater effluent on water quality, periphyton, and invertebrates in the Little Miami River Near Xenia, Ohio. Ohio J Sci. 1986;86(1):2-8. http://hdl.handle.net/1811/23110.

[21] Wynes D, Wissing T. Effects of water quality on fish and macroinvertebrate communities of the Little Miami River. Ohio J Sci. 1981;81:259-267. http://hdl.handle.net/1811/22809.

[22] Corliss JO. Biodiversity and biocomplexity of the protists and an overview of their significant roles in maintenance of our biosphere. Acta Protozool. 2002;41:199-219. http://www1.nencki.gov.pl/pdf/ap/ap636.pdf.

[23] Finlay BJ, Esteban GF. Freshwater protozoa: biodiversity and ecological function. Biodivers Conserv. 1998;7:1163-1186. DOI: 10.1023/A:1008879616066.

[24] Yun-Fen S, Buikema AL Jr, Yongue WH Jr, Pratt JR, Cairns J Jr. Use of protozoan communities to predict environmental effects of pollutants. J Protozool. 1986;33:146-151. DOI: 10.1111/j.1550-7408.1986.Tb05579.x.

[25] Lynn DH, Gilron GL. A brief review of approaches using ciliated protists to assess aquatic ecosystem health. J Aquat Ecosyst Health. 1992;1(4):263-270. DOI: 10.1007/BF00044168.

[26] Lawrence JR, Swerhone GDW, Wassenaar LI, Neu TR. Effects of selected pharmaceuticals on riverine biofilm communities. Can J Microbiol. 2005;51:655-669. DOI: 10.1139/w05-047.

[27] Madoni P. Ciliated protozoa and water quality in the Parma River (Northern Italy): long-term changes in the community structure. Hydrobiologia. 1993;264(3):129-135. DOI: 10.1007/BF00007283.

[28] Stout JD. Reactions of ciliates to environmental factors. Ecology. 1956;37(1):178-191. http://www.jstor.org/stable/1929681.

[29] Madoni P, Zangrossi S. Ciliated protozoa and saprobical evaluation of water quality in the Taro River (northern Italy). Ital J Zool. 2005;72:21-25. DOI: 10.1080/11250000509356648.

[30] Foissner W. Basic light and scanning electron microscopic methods for taxonomic studies of Ciliated Protozoa. Europ J Protistol. 1991;27:313-330. DOI: 10.1099/ijs.0.057893-0.

[31] Madoni P. A sludge biotic index (SBI) for the evaluation of the biological performance of activated sludge plants based on the microfauna analysis. Water Res. 1994;28:67-75. DOI: 10.1016/0043-1354(94)90120-1.

[32] Foissner W, Berger H. A user-friendly guide to the ciliates (Protozoa, Ciliophora) commonly used by hydrobiologists as bioindicators in rivers, lakes, and waste waters, with notes on their ecology. Freshwater Biol. 1996;35:375-482. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2427.1996.tb01775.x.

[33] Warren A. A revision of the genus Vorticella (Ciliophora: Peritrichida). Bull Br Mus Nat Hist (Zool). 1986;50(1):1-57. https://archive.org/details/biostor-39.

[34] Warren A. A revision of the genus Pseudovorticella Foissner & Schiffmann, 1974 (Ciliophora: Peritrichida). Bull Br Mus Nat Hist (Zool). 1987;52(1):1-12. http://biostor.org/reference/11911.

[35] Sladecek V. System of water quality from the biological point of view. Arch Hydrobiol Ergeb Limnol. 1973;7:1-217. DOI: 10.1002/iroh.19740590412.

[36] R Core Team. 2015. R: A language and environment for statistical computing. Vienna: R Foundation for Statistical Computing. https://www.R-project.org/.

[37] Hammer Ø, Harper DAT, Ryan PD. PAST: Paleontological statistics software package for education and data analysis. Palaeo Electron. 2001;4(1):1-9. http://palaeo-electronica.org/2001_1/past/issue1_01.htm.

[38] Magurran AE. Measuring Biological Diversity. Oxford: Blackwell Science; 2003;1-264. http://eu.wiley.com/WileyCDA/WileyTitle/productCd-0632056339.html.

[39] Babko R, Kuzmina T, Jaromin-Gleń K, Bieganowski A. Bioindication assessment of activated sludge adaptation in a lab-scale experiment. Ecol Chem Eng S. 2014;21(4):605-616. DOI: 10.1515/eces-2014-0043.

[40] Corrêa LVA, Hardoim EL, Zeilhofer P. Is the periphytic structure of Testaceans (Protozoa: Rhizopoda) related to water quality: a case study in the Cuiabá River, Brazil. Appl Ecol Env Res. 2015;13(1):85-97. DOI: 10.15666/aeer/1301_085097.

[41] Lagod G, Chomczynska M, Montusiewicz A, Malicki J, Bieganowski A. Proposal of measurement and visualization methods for dominance structures in the saprobe communities. Ecol Chem Eng S. 2009;16(3):369-377. http://tchie.uni.opole.pl/freeECE/S_16_3/LagodChomczynska_16(3).pdf.

[42] Chomczynska M, Montusiewicz A, Malicki J, Lagod G. Application of saprobes for bioindication of wastewater quality. Environ Eng Sci. 2009;26(2): 289-295. DOI: 10.1089/ees.2007.0311.

[43] Madoni P. Ciliated protozoa and water quality in the Parma River (Northern Italy): long-term changes in the community structure. Hydrobiologia. 1993;264:129-135. DOI: 10.1007/BF00007283.

[44] Babko R, Łagód G, Jaromin-Gleń KM. Abundance and structure of ciliated protozoa community at the particular devices of “Hajdów” WWTP. Rocznik Ochr Środ. 2012;14:56-68. http://old.ros.edu.pl/text/pp_2012_002.pdf.

[45] Jaromin-Gleń K, Babko R, Łagód G, Sobczuk H. Community composition and abundance of protozoa under different concentration of nitrogen compounds at “Hajdow” wastewater treatment plant. Ecol Chem Eng S. 2013;20(1):127-139. DOI: 10.2478/eces-2013-0010.

Ecological Chemistry and Engineering S

The Journal of Society of Ecological Chemistry and Engineering

Journal Information


IMPACT FACTOR 2017: 0.7
5-year IMPACT FACTOR: 0.815

CiteScore 2017: 0.79

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2017: 0.227
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2017: 0.535

Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 144 139 13
PDF Downloads 64 62 6