The Study of Possibilities for Reuse of Washings from Swimming Pool Circulation Systems

Open access


Swimming pools are very expensive, in terms of operation, sports facilities. Therefore, investors and managers of these facilities are looking for methods of reducing the costs of their use. One of the proposed methods is the managing of washings previously discharged to the sanitary sewage system. The assessment of possibilities for reuse of washings from swimming pool filtration system is based on the limits of basic indicators of pollutants in wastewater discharged to water and soil (temperature, pH, TSS, BOD5, COD, TN, TP, free chlorine). The conducted research of washings quality from 26 tested swimming pools have shown that washings quality is dependent on the operating conditions of the pool circuit, including the filter cycle duration and types of filter bed. A direct discharge to water or soil may be impossible due to excessive amounts of total suspended solids (above 35 mg/dm3) and free chlorine concentration (above 0.2 mg Cl2/dm3). However, the quality of supernatant water of washings subjected to sedimentation in the laboratory shows that the washings are suitable for reuse. The installation of settling tanks in swimming pool facilities could relieve the sewage systems and allow for the discharge of supernatant water to surface waters or for the irrigation of green areas in an environmentally friendly way.

If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.

  • [1] Filter Backwash Recycling Rule. Technical Guidance Manual. Office of Ground Water and Drinking Water (4606M). EPA 816-R-02-014.

  • [2] Reissmann FG Uhl W. Ultrafiltration for the reuse of spent filter backwash water from drinking water treatment. Desalination. 2006;198:225-235. DOI: 10.1016/j.desal.2006.03.517.

  • [3] Tobiason JE Edzwald JK Gilani V Kaminski GS Dunn HJ Galant PB. Effects of waste filter backwash recycle operation on clarification and filtration. J Water Supply: Research and Technology-AQUA. 2003;52(4):259-275.

  • [4] Binnie Ch Kimber M Smethurst G. Basic Water Treatment. London UK: Thomas Telford Publishing; 2002.

  • [5] Pizzi NG. Water Treatment. IV Edition. Denver USA: AWWA; 2010.

  • [6] Cornwell DA Water Treatment Residuals Engineering. Denver USA: AWWA Research Foundation and AWWA; 2006.

  • [7] Walsh ME Lake CB Gagnon GA. Strategic pathways for the sustainable management of water treatment plant residuals. J Environ Eng Sci. 2008;7:45-52.

  • [8] Weiying L Yuasa A Bingzhi D Huiping D Naiyun G. Study on backwash wastewater from rapid sand-filter by monolith ceramic membrane. Desalination. 2010;250:712-715. DOI: 10.1016/j.desal.2008.11.028.

  • [9] Caniani D Masi SI Mancini M Trulli E. Innovative reuse of drinking water sludge in geo-environmental applications. Waste Manage. 2013;33:1461-1468. DOI: 10.1016/j.wasman.2013.02.007.

  • [10] Arendze S Sibiya M. Filter backwash water treatment options. J Water Reuse Desalination. 2014;4(2):85-91. DOI: 10.2166/wrd.2013.131.

  • [11] Wyczarska-Kokot J Piechurski F. Ocena filtracji i stopnia zanieczyszczenia wód popłucznych w instalacjach basenowych (Assessing the efficiency of water filtration and the quality of washings in swimming pools). Ochr Środ. 2002;1(84):33-36.

  • [12] Wyczarska-Kokot J. Badania możliwości zagospodarowania popłuczyn z obiegów basenowych. (The study of possibilities of washings reusing from swimming pool circulation systems). Proc ECOpole. 2015;9(2):803-813. DOI: 10.2429/proc.2015.9(2)091.

  • [13] DIN 19643 1-4:2012-11: Aufbereitung von Schwimm und Badebeckenwasser (Treatment of water of swimming pools and baths); 2012.

  • [14] ANSI/APSP-11 2009: American National Standard for water quality in public pools and spas.

  • [15] Guidelines for safe recreational water environments. Vol. 2: Swimming pools and similar environments. WHO 2006.

  • [16] Pool Water Treatment Advisory Group (PWTAG). Dedicated solely to raising standards in swimming pool water treatment. UK; 2015.

  • [17] Indoor swimming pools in Poland - the inventory of sports facilities. The Department of Sports Infrastructure of Sport and Tourism Ministry Warszawa 2015.

  • [18] Teo TLL Coleman HM Khan SJ. Chemical contaminants in swimming pools: Occurrence implications and control. Environ Internat. 2015;76:16-31.

  • [19] Korkosz A Janczarek M Aranowski R Rzechuła J Hupka J. Efficiency of deep bed filtration in treatment of swimming pool water. Physicochem Probl Miner Process. 2010;44103-113.

  • [20] Korkosz A Niewiadomski M Hupka J. Investigation of properties of swimming pool water treatment sediments. Physicochem Probl Miner Process. 2011;46:243-252.

  • [21] Council Directive 86/280/EEC of 12 June 1986 on limit values and quality objectives for discharges of certain dangerous substances.

  • [22] Directive 2000/60/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 23 October 2000 establishing a framework for Community action in the field of water policy.

  • [23] Directive 2008/105/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 16 December 2008 on environmental quality standards in the field of water policy.

  • [24] Rozporządzenie Ministra Środowiska z dnia 18 listopada 2014 r. w sprawie warunków jakie należy spełnić przy wprowadzaniu ścieków do wód lub do ziemi (Regulation of Environment Minister of 18 November 2014 on conditions to be met when discharging sewage to waters or to the soil). DzU 2014 poz. 1800.

  • [25] Directive 2006/118/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 12 December 2006 on the protection of groundwater against pollution and deterioration.

  • [26] Gautam Kaul A Kaul SN. Water and Wastewater Analysis. New Delhi India: Daya Publishing House; 2002.

  • [27] Tomar M. Quality Assessment of Water and Wastewater. Boca Raton Florida: CRC Press; 1999.

  • [28] Kaul K. Handbook of Water and Wastewater Analysis. New Delhi India: Atlantic Publishers and Dist; 2007.

  • [29] Down RD Lehr JH. Environmental Instrumentation and Analysis Handbook. New Jersey: Wiley; 2005.

  • [30] Reissmann FG Schulze E Albrecht V. Application of a combined UF/RO system for the reuse of filter backwash water from treated swimming pool water. Desalination. 2005;178:41-49. DOI: 10.1016/j.desal.2004.11.027.

  • [31] Barbot E Moulin P. Swimming pool water treatment by ultrafiltration-adsorption process. J Membr Sci. 2008;314(1-2):50-57. DOI: 10.1016/j.memsci.2008.01.033.

  • [32] Baker R.W. Membrane Technology and Applications. West Sussex: Wiley; 2012. DOI: 10.1002/9781118359686.

  • [33] Reissman FG Uhl W. Ultrafiltration for the reuse of spent filter backwash water from drinking water treatment. Desalination. 2006;198(1-3):225-235. DOI: 10.1016/j.desal.2006.03.517.

Journal information
Impact Factor

IMPACT FACTOR 2018: 1.467
5-year IMPACT FACTOR: 1.226

CiteScore 2018: 1.47

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2018: 0.352
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2018: 0.907

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 295 194 1
PDF Downloads 114 87 1