Glebokie Lake in Szczecin after hydrotechnical regulations

Open access


Water quality of the Glebokie Lake in Szczecin (NW-Poland) was studied in years 2012-2014. Glebokie Lake is a reservoir with a negative water balance related to the location draining groundwater drinking water intake for Szczecin agglomeration. In 2004 hydrotechnical regulations were conducted aimed at maintaining a constant amount of water in the lake, which involved a temporary feeding Glebokie Lake with Gunica River waters. In order to determine the hydrochemical status of the Lake waters and the factors shaping water quality - 19 water quality indices within 25 months were measured: temperature, pH and water oxygen status, nutrients (N, P) and ionic macrocomponents and Fetot. Trophic status of the lake waters using the Carlson criteria was defined. On the basis of chemometric analysis of measurement data (CA, PCA/FA and DA) we established that statistically significant factors affecting water quality in the study period were: seasonal (the climatic seasons) changes in the biological processes activity, periodical (in April and November) waters inflows from the Gunica River, anthropopressure in during swimming season and the coagulant (FeSO4) presence in the ecosystem. The possibility of applying the chemometric techniques to interpret measurement data in the lake type like Glebokie Lake with a small amount of data has been shown.

[1] Aladin NV, Plotnikov IS, Micklin P, Ballatore T. Aral Sea: Water level, salinity and long-term changes in biological communities of an endangered ecosystem-past, present and future. Natural Res Environ Issues. 2009;15(1):177-181.

[2] Li XY, Xu HY, Sun YL, Zhang DS, Yang ZP. Lake-level change and water balance analysis at Lake Qinghai, west China during recent decades. Water Resour Manage. 2007;21(9):1505-1516. DOI: 10.1007/s11269-006-9096-1.

[3] Abbaspour M, Javid AH, Mirbagheri SA, Givi FA, Moghimi P. Investigation of lake drying attributed to climate change. Int J Environ Sci Technol. 2012;9(2):257-266. DOI: 10.1007/s13762-012-0031-0.

[4] Xiao S, Peng X, Tian Q. Climatic and human drivers of recent lake-level change in East Juyan Lake, China. Reg Environ Change. 2015;1-11. DOI: 10.1007/s10113-015-0822-1.

[5] Adrian R, O'Reilly CM, Zangarese H, Baines SB, Hessen DO, Keller W, et al. Lakes as sentinels of climate change. Limnol Oceanogr. 2009;54:2283-2297.

[6] Jöhnk KD, Straile D, Ostendorp W. Water level variability and trends in Lake Constance in the light of the 1999 centennial flood. Limnologica. 2004;34(1):15-21. DOI: 10.1016/S0075-9511(04)80017-3.

[7] Dąbrowski M. Trend in changes of lake water levels in the Pomerania Lakeland. Limnol Rev. 2004;4:75-80.

[8] Danilovich I, Lopuch P. Water balance and water regime of the lakes in Belarus. Limnol Rev. 2006;6:61-64.

[9] Holsten A, Vetter T, Vohland K, Krysanova V. Impact of climate change on soil moisture dynamics in Brandenburg with a focus on nature conservation areas. Ecolog Model. 2009;220(17):2076-2087. DOI: 10.1016/j.ecolmodel.2009.04.038.

[10] Germer S, Kaiser K, Bens O, Huttl RF. Water balance changes and responses of ecosystems and society in Berlin-Brandenburg region: a review. Erde. 2011;142:65-95.

[11] Kaiser K, Koch PJ, Mauersberger R, Stüve P, Dreibrodt J, Bens O. Detection and attribution of lake-level dynamics in north-eastern central Europe in recent decades. Reg Environ Change. 2014;14(4):1587-1600. DOI: 10.1007/s10113-014-0600-5.

[12] Holona T, Gołdyn R. Rekultywacja Jeziora Głębokiego w Szczecinie w latach 2008-2011. [Recultivation of Glebokie Lake in Szczecin in 2008-2011]. Gaz Woda Techn Sanit. 2012;2:75-77.

[13] Nędzarek A, Tórz A, Kubiak J. Oxygen conditions and trophic state of Lake Glebokie (Szczecin, Poland) in the years 2008-2010. Limnol Rev. 2010;10:163-172. DOI: 10.2478/v10194-011-0019-z.

[14] Basilevsky AT. Statistical Factor Analysis and Related Methods: Theory and Applications. New York-Singapore: John Wiley & Sons; 2009. DOI: 10.1002/9780470316894.

[15] Einax J, editor. Chemometrics in Environmental Chemistry - Application. Berlin Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag; 1995. DOI: 10.1007/978-3-540-49150-7.

[16] Mazerski J. Chemometria praktyczna. [Chemometric in practice]. Warszawa: Malamut; 2009.

[17] Miller T, Tokarz M, Poleszczuk G. Stream Osowka in Szczecin-chemometric analysis of water quality indices in winter season. Acta Biol. 2014;21:95-104.

[18] Loganathan G, Krishnaraj S, Muthumanickam J. Chemometric and trend analysis of water quality of the South Chennai lakes: an integrated environmental study. J Chemometr. 2015;29:59-68. DOI: 10.1002/cem.2664.

[19] Li D, Huang D, Guo C, Guo X. Multivariate statistical analysis of temporal-spatial variations in water quality of a constructed wetland purification system in a typical park in Beijing, China. Environ Monit Assess. 2015;187(1):1-14. DOI: 10.1007/s10661-014-4219-2.

[20] Kumar AS, Reddy AM, Srinivas L, Reddy PM. Assessment of surface water quality in hyderabad lakes by using multivariate statistical techniques, Hyderabad - India. Environ Pollut. 2014;4(2):14-23. DOI: 10.5539/ep.vn2p14.

[21] Smeti EM, Golfinopoulos SK. Characterization of the quality of a surface water resource by multivariate statistical analysis. Anal Lett. 2015. DOI: 10.1080/00032719.2015.1045585.

[22] Najar IA, Khan AB. Assessment of water quality and identification of pollution sources of three lakes in Kashmir, India, using multivariate analysis. Environ Earth Sci. 2012;66(8):2367-2378. DOI: 10.1007/s12665-011-1458-1.

[23] Badillo-Camacho J, Reynaga-Delgado E, Barcelo-Quintal I, del Valle PFZ, López-Chuken UJ, Orozco-Guareño E, et al. Water quality assessment of a tropical Mexican lake using multivariate statistical techniques. J Environ Protect. 2015;6(03):215. DOI: 10.4236/jep.2015.63022.

[24] Kazi TG, Arain MB, Jamali MK, Jalbani N, Afridi HI, Sarfraz RA, et al. Assessment of water quality of polluted lake using multivariate statistical techniques: A case study. Ecotox Environ Safety. 2009;72(2):301-309. DOI: 10.1016/j.econenv.2008.02.024.

[25] Mustapha A, Aris AZ, Juahir H, Raml MF, Kura NU. River water quality assessment using environmentric techniques: case study of Jakara River Basin. Environ Sci Pollut Res. 2013;20(8):5630-5644. DOI: 10.1007/s11356-013-1542-z.

[26] Thomas J, Joseph S, Thrivikramji KP. Discriminant analysis for characterization of hydrochemistry of two mountain river basins of contrasting climates in the southern Western Ghats, India. Environ Monit Assess. 2015;187(6):1-21. DOI: 10.1007/s10661-015-4589-0.

[27] Mohamed I, Othman F, Ibrahim AI, Alaa-Eldin ME, Yunus RM. Assessment of water quality parameters using multivariate analysis for Klang River basin, Malaysia. Environ Monit Assess. 2015;187(1):1-12. DOI: 10.1007/s10661-014-4182-y.

[28] Gao H, Song LvC, Zhang Y, Zheng Y, Wen LY, Yu H. Chemometrics data of water quality and environmental heterogeneity analysis in Pu River, China. Environ Earth Sci. 2015;73(9):5119-5129. DOI: 10.1007/s12665-015-4233-x.

[29] Ogwueleka TC. Use of multivariate statistical techniques for the evaluation of temporal and spatial variations in water quality of the Kaduna River, Nigeria. Environ Monit Assess. 2015; 187(3):1-17. DOI: 10.1007/s10661-015-4354-4.

[30] Kumarasamy P, James RA, Dhams HU, Byeon CW, Ramesh R. Multivariate water quality assesment for the Tamiraparani river basin, Southern India. Environ Earth Sci. 2014;71:2241-2451, DOI: 10.1007/s12665-013-2644-0.

[31] Wang Y, Wang P, Bai Y, Tian Z, Li J, Shao X, Mustavich LF, et al. Assessment of surface water quality via multivariate statistical techniques: A case study of the Songhua River Harbin region, China. J Hydr Environ Res. 2013;7(1):30-40. DOI: 10.1016/jher.2012.10.003.

[32] Sojka M, Siepak M, Zioła A, Frankowski M, Murat-Błażejewska S, Siepak J. Application of multivariate statistical techniques to evaluation of water quality in the Mała Wełna River (Western Poland). Environ Monit Assess. 2008;147(1-3):159-170. DOI: 10.1007/s10661-007-0107-3.

[33] Kowalkowski T, Zbytniewski R, Szpejna J, Buszewski B. Application of chemometrics in river water classification. Water Res. 2006;40(4):744-752. DOI: 10.1016/j.watres.2005.11.042.

[34] Belkhiri L, Narany TS. Using multivariate statistical analysis, geostatistical techniques and structural equation modeling to identify spatial variability of groundwater quality. Water Resorce Manag. 2015;29(6):2073-2089. DOI: 10.1007/s11269-015-0929-7.

[35] Affum AO, Osae SD, Nyarko BJB, Afful S, Fianko JR, Akiti TT, Adomako D, et al. Total coliforms, arsenic and cadmium exposure through drinking water in the Western Region of Ghana: application of multivariate statistical technique to groundwater quality. Environ Monit Assess. 2015;187(2):1-23. DOI: 10.1007/s10661-014-4167-x.

[36] Liu CW, Lin KH, Kuo YM. Application of factor analysis in the assessment of groundwater quality in a blackfoot disease area in Taiwan. Sci Total Environ. 2003;313:77-89. DOI: 10.1016/S0048-9697(02)00683-6.

[37] Jańczak J. Atlas jezior Polski. [Atlas of lakes in Poland]. Poznań: Wyd Nauk PWN; 1997.

[38] Sroka E. Forms on nitrogen and phosphorus in Świdwie Lake in 2004. Proc ECOpole. 2008;2:393-396.

[39] Rawicki K, Siwek H. Preliminary estimation of mineral nitrogen and phosphorus concentration in surface waters in the Świdwie Lake catchment. Folia Pomer Univ Technol Stetin Agric, Aliment Pisc Zootech. 2004;309(29):101-114.

[41] Gołdyn R, Podsiadłowski S, Dondajewska R, Kozak A. The sustainable restoration of lakes - towards the challenges of the Water Framework Directive. Ecohydrol Hydrobiol. 2014;14(1):68-74. DOI: 10.1016/j.ecohyd.2013.12.001.

[42] Keszka S, Tański A, Pender R, Potkański Ł, Czerniejewski P. Identifying threats to biodiversity on the basis of the analysis of fish fauna in Glebokie Lake in Szczecin City. In: Jakun M, Furygał-Selezniow G, Wozniak M, Wisniewska AM, editors. Water Biodiversity Assessment and Protection. Olsztyn: 2011; 147-154.

[43] Landsberg-Uczciwek M. (Ed.). Raport o stanie środowiska w Województwie Zachodniopomorskim w latach 2010-2011. [Report on the state of the environment in the Westpomeranian Region in 2010-2011]. Szczecin: WIOŚ Szczecin. Biblioteka Monitoringu; 2012.

[44] APHA. Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater. Washington: American Public Health Association; 2012.

[45] Poudel DD, Lee T, Srinivasan R, Abbaspour K, Jeong CY. Assessment of seasonal and spatial variation of surface water quality, identification of factors associated with water quality variability, and the modeling of critical nonpoint source pollution areas in an agricultural watershed. J Soil Water Conserv. 2013;68(3):155-171. DOI: 10.2486/jswc.68.3.155.

[46] Poleszczuk G, Svobodová Z, Bucior-Kwaczyńska A, Miller T. Turkusowe Lake (Wolin Island, Poland)-surface waters quality changes in years 1986-2010. Ecol Chem Eng S. 2014;21(2):201-214. DOI: 10.2478/eces-2014-0016.

[47] Lampert W, Sommer U. Limnookologie. Stuttgart: Springer; 2001.

[48] Kawecka B, Eloranta PV. Zarys ekologii glonów wód słodkich i środowisk lądowych. [An outline of algal ecology of freshwater and terrestrial environments]. Warszawa: Wyd Nauk PWN; 1994.

[49] Dojlido J, Best GA. Chemistry of Water and Water Pollution. New York: Ellis Horwood Limited; 1993.

[50] Carlson RE. A trophic state index for lakes. Limnol Oceanogr. 1977;22(2):361-369. DOI: 10.4319/lo.1977.22.2.0361.

Ecological Chemistry and Engineering S

The Journal of Society of Ecological Chemistry and Engineering

Journal Information

5-year IMPACT FACTOR: 0.815

CiteScore 2017: 0.79

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2017: 0.227
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2017: 0.535


All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 192 187 18
PDF Downloads 63 63 3