Screening of metabolites from endophytic fungi of some Nigerian medicinal plants for antimicrobial activities

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Endophytic fungi associated with Nigerian plants have recently generated significant interest in drug discovery programmes due to their immense potential to contribute to the discovery of new bioactive compounds. This study was carried out to investigate the secondary metabolites of endophytic fungi isolated from leaves of Newbouldia laevis, Ocimum gratissimum, and Carica papaya. The plants were collected from Agulu, Anambra State, South-East Nigeria. Endophytic fungal isolation, fungal fermentation; and extraction of secondary metabolites were carried out using standard methods. The crude extracts were screened for antimicrobial activities using the agar well diffusion method, and were also subjected to high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis to identify their constituents. A total of five endophytic fungi was isolated, two from N. laevis (NL-L1 and NL-L2), one from O. gratissimum (SL-L1), and two from C. papaya (PPL-LAC and PPL-LE2). In the antimicrobial assay, the extracts of NL-L2, SL-L1, and PPL-LE2 displayed mild antibacterial activity against both Gram negative and Gram positive test bacteria. PPL-LAC extract showed mild activity only against S. aureus, while no antimicrobial activity was recorded for NL-L1 extract. All the endophytic fungal extracts showed no activity against the test fungi C. albicans and A. fumigatus. HPLC analysis of the fungal extracts revealed the presence of ethyl 4-hydroxyphenyl acetate and ferulic acid in NL-L1; ruspolinone in NL-L2; protocatechuic acid, scytalone, and cladosporin in SL-L1; indole-3-acetic acid and indole-3-carbaldehyde in PPL-LE2; and indole-3-acetic acid in PPL-LAC. The findings of this study revealed the potentials possessed by these plants as source of endophytes that express biological active compounds. These endophytes hold key of possibilities to the discovery of novel molecules for pharmaceutical, agricultural and industrial applications.

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116. Okezie UM, Eze PM, Okoye FBC, Ikegbunam MN, Ugwu MC, Esimone CO. Biologically Active Metabolites of an Endophytic Fungus Isolated from Vernonia Amygdalina. African Journal of Pharmaceutical Research and Development 2017; 9(1): 24-29.

117. Abba CC, Eze PM, Abonyi DO, Nwachukwu CU, Proksch P, Okoye FBC, Eboka CJ. Phenolic Compounds from Endophytic Pseudofusicoccum sp. Isolated from Annona muricata. Trop J Nat Prod Res. 2018; 2(7):332-337.

118. Nwachukwu CU, Ngwoke KG, Eze PM, Eboka CJ, Okoye FBC. Secondary Metabolites from Curvularia sp, An Endophytic Fungus Isolated from the Leaves of Picralima nitida Durand and Hook (Apocynaceae). Trop J Nat Prod Res. 2018; 2(5):209-213.

119. Nnanna JC, Eze PM, Anyanwu OO, Ujam TN, Ikegbunam MN, Okoye FBC, Esimone CO. Screening of Metabolites of Endophytic Fungi Isolated from Leaves of Azadirachta indica for Antimicrobial and Cytotoxic Activities. The Pharmaceutical and Chemical Journal, 2018; 5(3): 20-27.

120. Wang H, Eze PM, Hӧfert S, Janiak C, Hartmann R, Okoye FBC, Esimone CO, Orfali RS, Dai H, Liu Z, Proksch P. Substituted L-tryptophan-L-phenyllactic acid conjugates produced by an endophytic fungus Aspergillus aculeatus using an OSMAC approach. RSC Adv. 2018; 8:7863–7872.

121. Abonyi DO, Eze PM, Abba CC, Ujam, NT, Proksch P, Okoye FBC, Esimone CO. Biologically active phenolic acids produced by Aspergillus sp., an endophyte of Moringa oleifera. Euro J Biol Res 2018; 8(3): 158-168.

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