Genetic testing for vascular Ehlers-Danlos syndrome and other variants with fragility of the middle arteries

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Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) is an umbrella term for various inherited connective tissue disorders associated with mutations in genes involved in extracellular matrix formation. “The 2017 International Classification of Ehlers-Danlos Syndromes and related disorders” identifies 13 clinical types with mutations in 19 distinct genes. The present module focuses on forms with major vascular involvement: vascular EDS (vEDS) caused by heterozygous mutations in COL3A1, “vascular-like” EDS (vlEDS) caused by recurrent mutations in COL1A1, classical EDS with vascular fragility associated with heterozygous mutations in COL5A1, and kyphoscoliotic EDS associated with recessive variations in PLOD1 and FKBP14. The overall prevalence of EDS is estimated between 1/10,000 and 1/25,000 and vEDS accounts for about 5 to 10% of all EDS cases. This Utility Gene Test was prepared on the basis of an analysis of the literature and existing diagnostic protocols. Molecular testing is useful for diagnosis confirmation, as well as differential diagnosis, appropriate genetic counselling and access to clinical trials.

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