Biomedical Nanotechnology (BNT) has rapidly become a revolutionary force that is driving innovation in the medical field. BNT is a subclass of nanotechnology (NT), and often operates in cohort with other subclasses, such as mechanical or electrical NT for the development of diagnostic assays, therapeutic implants, nano-scale imaging systems, and medical machinery. BNT is generating solutions to many conventional challenges through the development of enhanced therapeutic delivery systems, diagnostic techniques, and theranostic therapies. Therapeutically, BNT has generated many novel nanocarriers (NCs) that each express specifically designed physiochemical properties that optimize their desired pharmacokinetic profile. NCs are also being integrated into nanoscale platforms that further enhance their delivery by controlling and prolonging their release profile. Nano-platforms are also proving to be highly efficient in tissue regeneration when combined with the appropriate growth factors. Regarding diagnostics, NCs are being designed to perform targeted delivery of luminescent tags and contrast agents that enhance the NC -aided imaging capabilities and resulting diagnostic accuracy of the presence of diseased cells. This technology has also been advancing the ability for surgeons to practice true precision surgical techniques. Incorporating therapeutic and diagnostic NC-components within a single NC can facilitate both functions, referred to as theranostics, which facilitates real-time in vivo tracking and observation of drug release events via enhanced imaging. Additionally, stimuli-responsive theranostic NCs are quickly developing as vectors for tumor ablation therapies by providing a model that facilitates the location of cancer cells for the application of an external stimulus. Overall, BNT is an interdisciplinary approach towards health care, and has the potential to significantly improve the quality of life for humanity by significantly decreasing the treatment burden for patients, and by providing non-invasive therapeutics that confer enhanced therapeutic efficiency and safety
1. Iavicoli I, Leso V, Ricciardi W, Hodson LL, Hoover MD. Opportunities and challenges of nanotechnology in the green economy. Environ Health 2014; 13:78.
2. Hutchison JE. The Road to Sustainable Nanotechnology: Challenges, Progress and Opportunities. ACS Sustain Chem Eng 2016; 4:5907-5914.
3. Cheng HN, Doemeny LJ, Geraci CL, Grob Schmidt D. Nanotechnology Overview: Opportunities and Challenges. Nanotechnology: Delivering on the Promise Volume 1. Volume 1220: American Chemical Society, 2016:1-12.
4. Purohit R, Mittal A, Dalela S, Warudkar V, Purohit K, Purohit S. Social, Environmental and Ethical Impacts of Nanotechnology. Materials Today: Proceedings 2017; 4:5461-5467.
5. Di Sia P. Nanotechnology Among Innovation, Health and Risks. Procedia Soc Beh Sci 2017; 237:1076-1080.
6. Harifi T, Montazer M. Application of nanotechnology in sports clothing and flooring for enhanced sport activities, performance, efficiency and comfort: a review. J Ind Text 2015; 46:1147-1169.
7. Beck B, Blanpain C. Unravelling cancer stem cell potential. Nat Rev Cancer 2013; 13:727-38.
8. Jahangirian H, Lemraski EG, Webster TJ, Rafiee-Moghaddam R, Abdollahi Y. A review of drug delivery systems based on nanotechnology and green chemistry: green nanomedicine. Int J Nanomed 2017; 12:2957-2978.
9. Dilnawaz F, Acharya S, Sahoo SK. Recent trends of nanomedicinal approaches in clinics. Int J Pharm 2018; 538:263-278.
10. Paccez JD, et al. The receptor tyrosine kinase Axl is an essential regulator of prostate cancer proliferation and tumor growth and represents a new therapeutic target. Oncogene 2013; 32:689-98.
11. Rajamani D, Bhasin MK. Identification of key regulators of pancreatic cancer progression through multidimensional systems-level analysis. Genome Med 2016; 8:38.
12. Arredouani MS, et al. Identification of the transcription factor single- minded homologue 2 as a potential biomarker and immunotherapy target in prostate cancer. Clin Cancer Res 2009; 15:5794-802.
13. Kumar B, Jalodia K, Kumar P, Gautam HK. Recent advances in nanoparticle- mediated drug delivery. J Drug Deliv Sci Technol 2017; 41:260-268.
14. Jindal AB. The effect of particle shape on cellular interaction and drug delivery applications of micro- and nanoparticles. Int J Pharm 2017; 532:450-465.
15. Sundar DS, Antoniraj MG, Kumar CS, Mohapatra SS, Houreld NN, Ruckmani K. Recent Trends of Biocompatible and Biodegradable Nanoparticles in Drug Delivery: A Review. Curr Med Chem 2016; 23:3730-3751.
16. Mukherjee B, Dutta L, Mondal L, Dey NS, Chakraborty S, Maji R, Shaw TK. Nanoscale Formulations and Diagnostics With Their Recent Trends: A Major Focus of Future Nanotechnology. Curr Pharm Des 2015; 21:5172-86.
18. Safari J, Zarnegar Z. Advanced drug delivery systems: Nanotechnology of health design A review. J Saudi Chem Soc 2014; 18:85-99.
19. Howell M, Wang C, Mahmoud A, Hellermann G, Mohapatra SS, Mohapatra S. Dual-function theranostic nanoparticles for drug delivery and medical imaging contrast: perspectives and challenges for use in lung diseases. Drug Deliv Trans Res 2013; 3:352-363.
20. Wang C, et al. A chitosan-modified graphene nanogel for noninvasive controlled drug release. Nanomedicine 2013; 9:903-11.
21. Williams EC, Toomey R, Alcantar N. Controlled release niosome embedded chitosan system: effect of crosslink mesh dimensions on drug release. J Biomed Mater Res A 2012; 100:3296-303.
22. Denmark DJ, et al. Remote triggering of thermoresponsive PNIPAM by iron oxide nanoparticles. RSC Advances 2016; 6:5641-5652.
23. Liu M, Du H, Zhang W, Zhai G. Internal stimuli-responsive nanocarriers for drug delivery: Design strategies and applications. Mater Sci Eng: C 2017; 71:1267-1280.
24. Walsh DP, et al. Bioinspired Star-Shaped Poly(l-lysine) Polypeptides: Efficient Polymeric Nanocarriers for the Delivery of DNA to Mesenchymal Stem Cells. Mol Pharm 2018; 15:1878-1891.
25. Wei Z, et al. The diosgenin prodrug nanoparticles with pH-responsive as a drug delivery system uniquely prevents thrombosis without increased bleeding risk. Nanomedicine 2018; 14:673-684.
26. Boyapalle S, Xu W, Raulji P, Mohapatra S, Mohapatra SS. A Multiple siRNA-Based Anti-HIV/SHIV Microbicide Shows Protection in Both In Vitro and In Vivo Models. PLoS One 2015; 10:e0135288.
27. Lee DW, Shirley SA, Lockey RF, Mohapatra SS. Thiolated chitosan nanoparticles enhance anti-inflammatory effects of intranasally delivered theophylline. Respir Res 2006; 7:112.
28. Lee D, Zhang W, Shirley SA, Kong X, Hellermann GR, Lockey RF, Mohapatra SS. Thiolated chitosan/DNA nanocomplexes exhibit enhanced and sustained gene delivery. Pharm Res 2007; 24:157-67.
29. Yang SD, et al. Binary-copolymer system base on low-density lipoprotein- coupled N-succinyl chitosan lipoic acid micelles for co-delivery MDR1 siRNA and paclitaxel, enhances antitumor effects via reducing drug. J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater 2017; 105:1114-1125.
30. Das M, Howell M, Foran EA, Iyre R, Mohapatra SS, Mohapatra S. Sertoli Cells Loaded with Doxorubicin in Lipid Micelles Reduced Tumor Burden and Dox-Induced Toxicity. Cell Transplant 2017; 26:1694-1702.
31. Zhang Y, Li N, Suh H, Irvine DJ. Nanoparticle anchoring targets immune agonists to tumors enabling anti-cancer immunity without systemic toxicity. Nat Comm 2018; 9:6.
32. Liu L, Ye Q, Lu M, Chen ST, Tseng HW, Lo YC, Ho C. A New Approach to Deliver Anti-cancer Nanodrugs with Reduced Off-target Toxicities and Improved Efficiency by Temporarily Blunting the Reticuloendothelial System with Intralipid. Sci Rep 2017; 7:16106.
33. Germain M, et al. Priming the body to receive the therapeutic agent to redefine treatment benefit/risk profile. Sci Rep 2018; 8:4797.
34. Chandan R, Banerjee R. Pro-apoptotic liposomes-nanobubble conjugate synergistic with paclitaxel: a platform for ultrasound responsive image-guided drug delivery. Sci Rep 2018; 8:2624.
35. Hurwitz SN, Nkosi D, Conlon MM, York SB, Liu X, Tremblay DC, Meckes DG, Jr. CD63 Regulates Epstein-Barr Virus LMP1 Exosomal Packaging, Enhancement of Vesicle Production, and Noncanonical NF-kappaB Signaling. J Virol 2017; 91.
36. Hurwitz SN, Rider MA, Bundy JL, Liu X, Singh RK, Meckes DG, Jr. Proteomic profiling of NCI-60 extracellular vesicles uncovers common protein cargo and cancer type-specific biomarkers. Oncotarget 2016; 7:86999-87015.
37. Hurwitz SN, Conlon MM, Rider MA, Brownstein NC, Meckes DG, Jr. Nanoparticle analysis sheds budding insights into genetic drivers of extracellular vesicle biogenesis. J Extracell Vesicles 2016; 5:31295.
38. Minghua W, et al. Plasma exosomes induced by remote ischaemic preconditioning attenuate myocardial ischaemia/reperfusion injury by transferring miR-24. Cell Death Dis 2018; 9:320.
39. Amolegbe SA, et al. Mesoporous silica nanocarriers encapsulated antimalarials with high therapeutic performance. Sci Rep 2018; 8:3078.
40. Mandal T, Beck M, Kirsten N, Linden M, Buske C. Targeting murine leukemic stem cells by antibody functionalized mesoporous silica nanoparticles. Sci Rep 2018; 8:989.
41. Farooq MU, et al. Gold Nanoparticles-enabled Efficient Dual Delivery of Anticancer Therapeutics to HeLa Cells. Sci Rep 2018; 8:2907.
42. Ramalingam V, Varunkumar K, Ravikumar V, Rajaram R. Target de livery of doxorubicin tethered with PVP stabilized gold nanoparticles for effective treatment of lung cancer. Sci Rep 2018; 8:3815.
43. Lian X, Erazo-Oliveras A, Pellois JP, Zhou HC. High efficiency and long-term intracellular activity of an enzymatic nanofactory based on metal-organic frameworks. Nat Comm 2017; 8:2075.
44. Tiwari A, Singh A, Garg N, Randhawa JK. Curcumin encapsulated zeolitic imidazolate frameworks as stimuli responsive drug delivery system and their interaction with biomimetic environment. Sci Rep 2017; 7:12598.
45. Shin CS, Marcano DC, Park K, Acharya G. Application of Hydrogel Template Strategy in Ocular Drug Delivery. Methods Mol Biol 2017; 1570:279-285.
46. Coursey TG, et al. Dexamethasone nanowafer as an effective therapy for dry eye disease. J Control Release 2015; 213:168-174.
47. Chen W, et al. Microneedle-array patches loaded with dual mineralized protein/peptide particles for type 2 diabetes therapy. Nat Comm 2017; 8:1777.
48. Karabin NB, et al. Sustained micellar delivery via inducible transitions in nanostructure morphology. Nat Comm 2018; 9:624.
49. Chaudhari AA, et al. Future Prospects for Scaffolding Methods and Biomaterials in Skin Tissue Engineering: A Review. Int J Mol Sci 2016; 17.
50. Farris AL, Rindone AN, Grayson WL. Oxygen Delivering Biomaterials for Tissue Engineering. J Mater Chem B 2016; 4:3422-3432.
52. Affram K, Udofot O, Cat A, Agyare E. In vitro and in vivo antitumor activity of gemcitabine loaded thermosensitive liposomal nanoparticles and mild hyperthermia in pancreatic cancer. Int J Adv Res 2015; 3:859-874.
53. Affram K, Udofot O, Agyare E. Cytotoxicity of gemcitabine-loaded thermosensitive liposomes in pancreatic cancer cell lines. Integr Cancer Sci Ther 2015; 2:133-142.
54. Howell M, Mallela J, Wang C, Ravi S, Dixit S, Garapati U, Mohapatra S. Manganese-loaded lipid-micellar theranostics for simultaneous drug and gene delivery to lungs. J Control Release 2013; 167:210-8.
55. Martinez JO, et al. Biomimetic nanoparticles with enhanced affinity towards activated endothelium as versatile tools for theranostic drug delivery. Theranostics 2018; 8:1131-1145.
56. Sanchez-Ramos J, et al. Chitosan-Mangafodipir nanoparticles designed for intranasal delivery of siRNA and DNA to brain. J Drug Deliv Sci Technol 2018; 43:453-460.
57. Das M, Wang C, Bedi R, Mohapatra SS, Mohapatra S. Magnetic micelles for DNA delivery to rat brains after mild traumatic brain injury. Nanomedicine 2014; 10:1539-48.
58. Wang C, et al. Dual-purpose magnetic micelles for MRI and gene delivery. J Control Release 2012; 163:82-92.
59. Wang C, et al. Multifunctional Chitosan Magnetic-Graphene (CMG) Nanoparticles: a Theranostic Platform for Tumor-targeted Co-delivery of Drugs, Genes and MRI Contrast Agents. J Mater Chem B 2013; 1:4396-4405.
60. Varna M, Xuan HV, Fort E. Gold nanoparticles in cardiovascular imaging. Wiley Interdiscip Rev Nanomed Nanobiotechnol 2018; 10.
61. Liu Y, Zhang P, Li F, Jin X, Li J, Chen W, Li Q. Metal-based NanoEnhancers for Future Radiotherapy: Radiosensitizing and Synergistic Effects on Tumor Cells. Theranostics 2018; 8:1824-1849.
62. Das R, et al. Boosted Hyperthermia Therapy by Combined AC Magnetic and Photothermal Exposures in Ag/Fe3O4 Nanoflowers. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2016; 8:25162-9.
63. Usov NA, Nesmeyanov MS, Tarasov VP. Magnetic Vortices as Efficient Nano Heaters in Magnetic Nanoparticle Hyperthermia. Sci Rep 2018; 8:1224.
64. Zhang L, et al. Bioinspired Multifunctional Melanin-Based Nanoliposome for Photoacoustic/Magnetic Resonance Imaging-Guided Efficient Photothermal Ablation of Cancer. Theranostics 2018; 8:1591-1606.
65. Yang G, et al. Smart Nanoreactors for pH-Responsive Tumor Homing, Mitochondria-Targeting, and Enhanced Photodynamic-Immunotherapy of Cancer. Nano letters 2018; 18:2475-2484.
66. Wang H, et al. Targeted production of reactive oxygen species in mitochondria to overcome cancer drug resistance. Nat Comm 2018; 9:562.
67. Mo R, Gu Z. Tumor microenvironment and intracellular signal-activated nanomaterials for anticancer drug delivery. Materials Today 2016; 19:274-283.
68. Nahire R, et al. Multifunctional polymersomes for cytosolic delivery of gemcitabine and doxorubicin to cancer cells. Biomaterials 2014; 35:6482-6497.
69. Owens EA, et al. Near-Infrared Illumination of Native Tissues for Image-Guided Surgery. J Med Chem 2016; 59:5311-5323.
70. Hiroshima Y, et al. Effective fluorescence-guided surgery of liver metastasis using a fluorescent anti-CEA antibody. J Surg Oncol 2016; 114:951-958.
71. Matsumoto T, et al. A Mouse Model of Fluorescent Protein-expressing Disseminated Peritoneal Lymphoma for Fluorescence-guided Surgery. Anticancer Res 2016; 36:4483-7.
72. Wicki A, Witzigmann D, Balasubramanian V, Huwyler J. Nanomedicine in cancer therapy: challenges, opportunities, and clinical applications. J Control Release 2015; 200:138-57.
73. Bernthal NM, et al. Combined in vivo optical and microCT imaging to monitor infection, inflammation, and bone anatomy in an orthopaedic implant infection in mice. J Vis Exp 2014:e51612.
74. Hu Q, Li H, Wang L, Gu H, Fan C. DNA Nanotechnology-Enabled Drug Delivery Systems. Chem Rev 2018.
75. Li J, Green AA, Yan H, Fan C. Engineering nucleic acid structures for programmable molecular circuitry and intracellular biocomputation. Nat Chem 2017; 9:1056-1067.
76. Udomprasert A, Kangsamaksin T. DNA origami applications in cancer therapy. Cancer Sci 2017; 108:1535-1543.
77. Franquelim HG, Khmelinskaia A, Sobczak JP, Dietz H, Schwille P. Membrane sculpting by curved DNA origami scaffolds. Nat Comm 2018; 9:811.
78. Raab M, et al. Using DNA origami nanorulers as traceable distance measurement standards and nanoscopic benchmark structures. Sci Rep 2018; 8:1780.
79. Cronin M, et al. High resolution in vivo bioluminescent imaging for the study of bacterial tumour targeting. PLoS One 2012; 7:e30940.
80. Hwang KS, Lee SM, Kim SK, Lee JH, Kim TS. Micro- and nanocantilever devices and systems for biomolecule detection. Annu Rev Anal Chem (Palo Alto Calif ) 2009; 2:77-98.
81. Shah P, Zhu X, Zhang X, He J, Li CZ. Microelectromechanical System- Based Sensing Arrays for Comparative in Vitro Nanotoxicity Assessment at Single Cell and Small Cell-Population Using Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2016; 8:5804-12.
82. Cheemalapati SV, et al. Subcellular and in-vivo Nano-Endoscopy. Sci Rep 2016; 6:34400.
83. Alwarappan S, Cissell K, Dixit S, Mohapatra S, Li CZ. Chitosan-Modified Graphene Electrodes for DNA Mutation Analysis. J Electroanal Chem (Lausanne) 2012; 686:69-72.
84. Girard YK, et al. A 3D fibrous scaffold inducing tumoroids: a platform for anticancer drug development. PLoS One 2013; 8:e75345.
85. Terrell-Hall TB, Ammer AG, Griffith JI, Lockman PR. Permeability across a novel microfluidic blood-tumor barrier model. Fluids Barriers CNS 2017; 14:3.
86. Samavedi S, Joy N. 3D printing for the development of in vitro cancer models. Curr Opin Biomed Eng 2017; 2:35-42.
87. Vafai N, Lowry TW, Wilson KA, Davidson MW, Lenhert S. Evaporative edge lithography of a liposomal drug microarray for cell migration assays. Nanofabrication 2015; 2:34-42.
88. Kusi-Appiah AE, Lowry TW, Darrow EM, Wilson KA, Chadwick BP, Davidson MW, Lenhert S. Quantitative dose-response curves from subcellular lipid multilayer microarrays. Lab on a chip 2015; 15:3397-404.
89. Ghazanfari L, Lenhert S. Screening of Lipid Composition for Scalable Fabrication of Solvent-Free Lipid Microarrays. Front Mater 2016; 3.
90. Lowry TW, Prommapan P, Rainer Q, Van Winkle D, Lenhert S. Lipid Multilayer Grating Arrays Integrated by Nanointaglio for Vapor Sensing by an Optical Nose. Sensors (Basel, Switzerland) 2015; 15:20863-72.
91. Bazard P, Frisina RD, Walton JP, Bhethanabotla VR. Nanoparticle- based Plasmonic Transduction for Modulation of Electrically Excitable Cells. Sci Rep 2017; 7:7803.