Human term placenta as source of stem cells for regenerative medicine

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A goal of regenerative medicine is to repair and regenerate damaged cells, tissues, and organs and ultimately restore function. Regeneration can be obtained by cell replacement or by stimulating the body’s own repair mechanisms. It requires a favorable microenvironment so that regenerative signals can stimulate resident stem/stromal cells. Regeneration is only possible after resolution of injury-induced inflammation. Immune response may be aggravated in degenerative, inflammation-based diseases. In this mini-review we discuss how cells isolated from the amniotic membrane of human term placentas and their derivatives, such as conditioned cell culture medium, can help resolve many diseases characterized by altered immune response by acting on different inflammatory mediators. Amniotic cells and derivatives have a wide spectrum of immunomodulatory properties that help trigger tissue regeneration. They can promote resolution of injury-related inflammation by reducing pro-inflammatory signals and favoring anti-inflammatory immune components. The multifaceted, immunomodulatory properties of amniotic membrane-derived cells and derivatives make them attractive for a variety of applications, especially in diseases with an exacerbated immune response, such as degenerative, inflammatory- based diseases.

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