Utilization of animal fat waste as carbon source by carotenogenic yeasts – a screening study

Open access


Red yeast strains are ubiquitous microorganisms which accumulate substantial amounts of lipids and lipid-soluble metabolites. Red yeasts utilize many waste substrates of different origin. In this work red yeasts strains (Rhodotorula, Sporobolomyces, Cystofilobasidium) were used for screening of growth and metabolic activity. As a carbon source waste animal fat and its hydrolysis products were used. Hydrolysis of animal fat was tested in alkaline as well as acidic conditions. As the substrate glucose (control), glycerol, crude animal fat, acid fat hydrolyzate and hydrolysate: glucose 1:2 were used. Screening of growth and metabolic activity of red yeasts was performed by flow cytometry. Extracellular lipase production was monitored as adaptation mechanism. Carotenoids, ergosterol and ubiquinone were quantified by HPLC/PDA/MS/ESI and the biomass was evaluated gravimetrically. All tested strains utilized fat hydrolysate and produced red coloured biomass. Cultivation in media containing non-hydrolysed fat led to strain specific induction of extracellular lipase. Amount of lipid metabolites produced by individual strains was depended on glycerol content in medium. The highest increase of lipase production was observed in Cystofilobasidium macerans and Sporobolomyces shibatanus. Valorisation of animal fat can lead to production of unsaturated fatty acids, single cell oils, carotenoid pigments, sterols and enriched red yeast biomass.

1. Stephen L. Fats and Oils - Animal Based. Food Processing: Principles and Applications, Edited by Clark S, Jung S, and LamsalB. John Wiley and Sons 2014.

2. Gunstone FD. Modifying lipids for use in food. 1st Edition, 2006.

3. Doppenberg J. All About Feed. Nordic Nutrition Recommendations 2012; 23(5) 9-11.

4. Gupta R, Rathi P, Bradoo S. Lipase mediated upgradation of dietary fats and oils. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition 2003.

5. Kendrick A, Ratledge C. Lipids of selected moulds grown for production of n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Lipids 1992; 20: 15-20.

6. Kosa G, Kohler A Shapaval V, et al. Microtiter plate cultivation of oleaginous fungi and monitoring of lipogenesis by high-throughput FTIR spectroscopy. Microb Cell Fact 2017; 16: 101.

7. Shapaval V, Afseth NK, Vogt H, Kohler A. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy for the prediction of fatty acid profiles in Mucor fungi grown in media with different carbon sources. Microb Cell Fact 2014; 4: 13-26.

8. Ferreira JA, et al. A Biorefinery from Nannochloropsis sp. microalga - Energy and CO2 emission and economic analyses. Biores Technol 2013; 135:523-32.

9. Papanikolaou S, Dimou A, Fakas S, et al. Biotechnological conversion of waste cooking olive oil into lipid-rich biomass using Aspergillus and Penicillium strains. Appl Microbiol 2013; 56: 1138-1150.

10. Aggelis G, Sourdis J Prediction of lipid accumulation - degradation in oleaginous microorganisms growing on vegetable oils. Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek 1997; 72: 159-165.

11. Papanikolaou S, Aggelis G. Lipid production by Yarrowia lipolytica growing on industrial glycerol in a single-stage continuous culture. Bioresour Technol 2002; 82:43-49.

12. Papanikolaou S, Aggelis G. Modeling lipid accumulation and degradation in Yarrowia lipolytica cultivated on industrial fats. Curr Microbiol 2003; 46: 398-402.

13. Roux-Van der Merwe MP, Badenhorst J. and Britz T.J. Fungal treatment of an edible-oil-containing industrial effluent. World J Microbiol Biotechnol 2005; 21: 947-953.

14. Papanikolaou S, Aggelis G. Lipids of oleaginous yeasts. Part II: Technology and potential applications Eur J Lipid Sci Technol 2011; 113:1052-1073.

15. Petrik S, Hároniková A, Márová I, Kostovová I, Breierová E. Production of biomass, carotenoids and other lipid metabolites by several red yeast strains cultivated on waste glycerol from biofuel production - a comparative screening study. Annals Microbiol 2013; 63: 1537-1551.

16. Lopes da Silva T, Dias C, Silva C. Effect of Medium pH on Rhodosporidium toruloides NCYC 921 Carotenoid and Lipid Production Evaluated by Flow Cytometry. Appl Biochem Biotechnol 2016.

17. Marova I, Carnecka M, Halienova A, Dvorakova T, Haronikova A. Use of several waste substrates for carotenoid-rich yeast biomass production. JEMA 2013; 95: S338-S342.

18. Marova I, Carnecka M, Halienova A, Koci R, Breierova E. Production of carotenoid/ergosterol-supplemented biomass by red yeast Rhodotorula glutinis grown under external stress. Food Technol Biotechnol 2010; 48(1): 56-61.

19. Kot AM, Blazejak S, Kurz A, Gientka I, Kielszek M. Rhodotorula glutinis - a potential source of lipids, carotenoids, and enzymes for use in industries. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2016; 100: 6103-6117.

Journal Information


All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 151 151 12
PDF Downloads 66 66 3