VR technology is an emerging IT innovation that greatly affects consumer behaviour and consumer perception of products. The aim of this study is to examine how the virtual reality phenomenon can be used as a marketing communication tool and how its usage affects the reception of individual components of a marketing message. The research conducted examined the possible impact of virtual reality on message perception and attitude towards particular offers. Additionally the authors wanted to find out whether there was a relationship between the use of virtual reality and the acceptance of new technologies in marketing communication. To verify the stated hypotheses empirical research was conducted involving an experiment with 150 observations of respondents taking advantage of three different marketing communication tools including: VR presentation with Oculus Rift hardware, video and printed advertisements. The results obtained reveal that VR technology positively and significantly impacts the reception of the offer, the technology involved and the presentation itself.
Adams, R. L. (2016, October 17). Five ways virtual reality will change the world. Forbes. Retrieved from https://www.forbes.com/sites/robertadams/2016/10/17/5-ways-virtual-reality-will-change-the-world/#311e2cc2b018
Allameh, S. M., Esfahani, S. L., & Nikbakht, M. (2017). Evaluating the effect of marketing innovation on green marketing strategies. International Journal of Scientific Management & Development, 5(10), 464-473.
Barnes, S. (2016, November 3). Understanding virtual reality in marketing: nature, implications and potential. doi:
Benefield, J. D., Rutherford, R. C., & Allen, M. T. (2012). The effects of sales of residential real estate on price and marketing time. Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics, 45(4), 965-981.
Biocca, F. (1992a). Virtual reality technology: a tutorial. Journal of Communication, 42(4), 23-72.
Biocca, F. (1992b). Communication within Virtual Reality: creating a space for research. Journal of Communication, Autumn, 42(4), 5-22.
Cheng, L. K., Chieng, M. H., & Chieng, W. H. (2014). Measuring virtual experience in a three-dimensional virtual reality interactive simulator environment: a structural equation modelling approach. Virtual Reality, 18, 173-188.
Choi, Y. K., & Taylor, C. R. (2014). How do 3-dimensional images promote products on the Internet?. Journal of Business Research, 67, 2164-2170.
Coates, G. (1992). Program from invisible site - a virtual shop, a multimedia performance. San Francisco, CA: Performance Works.
Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences (2nd ed.). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Conover, W. J., & Iman, R. L. (1981). Rank transformations as a bridge between parametric and nonparametric statistics. The American Statistician, 35(3), 124-129.
Cortina, J. M. (1993). What is coefficient alpha? An examination of theory and applications. Journal of Applied Psychology, 78(1), 98-104.
Gartner. (2016). Gartner’s 2016 hype cycle for emerging technologies identifies three key trends that organizations must track to gain competitive advantage. Retrieved from https://www.gartner.com/newsroom/id/3412017
George, D., & Mallery, P. (2003). SPSS for Windows step by step: a simple guide and reference 11.0 update (4th ed.). Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon.
Grigorovici, D. M. & Constantin, C. D. (2004). Experiencing interactive advertising beyond rich media: impacts of ad type and presence on brand effectiveness in 3D gaming immersive virtual environments. Journal of Interactive Advertising, 5(1), 22-36.
Hair, J. F., Black, W. C., Babin, B. J., & Anderson, R. E. (2010). Multivariate data analysis: a global perspective (7th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson-Hall International.
Hajduk, G. (2016). Challenges for marketing communications in the digital age. In G. Mazurek & J. Tkaczyk (Eds.), The impact of the digital world on management and marketing (pp. 183-195). Warszawa: Poltext.
Hassouneh, D., & Brengman, M. (2015). Retailing in social virtual worlds: developing a typology of virtual store atmospherics. Journal of Electronic Commerce Research 16, 218-241.
Hopkins, C. D., Raymond, M. A., & Mitra, A. (2004). Consumer responses to perceived telepresence in the online advertising environment: the moderating role of involvement. Marketing Theory, 4(1-2), 137-162.
Huang, Y. C., Backman, K. F., Backman, S. J., & Chang, L. L. (2015). Exploring the implications of virtual reality technology in tourism marketing: an integrated research framework. International Journal of Tourism Research, 18(2), 116-128.
Jung, T., Dieck, M. C., Lee, H., & Chung, N. (2016). Effects of virtual reality and augmented reality on visitor experiences in museum. In A. Inversini, & R. Schegg (Eds.), Information and Communication Technologies in Tourism [E-Reader Version]. Retrieved from https://link.springer.com/book/10.1007%2F978-3-319-28231-2#page=612
Kaplan, A. & Mazurek, G. (2018). Social media: state of the art and research agenda. In B. Mierzejewska, J. Jung, & A., Albarran, (Ed.), 2nd handbook of media management and economics. London, United Kingdom: Routledge.
Keng, C., & Lin, H. (2006). Impact of telepresence levels on Internet advertising effects. Cyberpsychology and Behavior, 9(1), 82-94.
Kirk, R. E. (2013). Experimental design: procedures for the behavioural sciences (4th ed.). London: Sage Publications.
La Valle, S. M. (2017). Virtual Reality. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Lessiter, J., Freeman, J., Keogh, E., & Davidoff, J. (2001). A cross-media presence questionnaire: the ITC-sense of presence inventory. Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, 10(3), 282-297.
Mandelbaum, A. (2015, August 17). How companies are marketing with virtual reality [Web log post]. Retrieved from http://www.chiefmarketer.com/companiesmarketing-virtual-reality/
Mazurek, G. (2011a). Informacja w wirtualnym środowisku a rozwoj społeczeństwa informacyjnego. Zeszyty Naukowe Uniwersytetu Szczecińskiego. Ekonomiczne Problemy Usług, 186-194.
Mazurek, G. (2011b). Virtualization of marketing - conceptual model. In C. Wang (Ed.), Proceedings of the International Conference on Marketing Studies (pp. 109‑113). Academy of Taiwan, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
Mazurek, G. (2012). Virtualization of marketing. Contemporary Management Research, 8(3), 195-204.
Mazuryk, T., & Gervautz, M. (1996). Virtual Reality: history, applications, technology and future, technical report. Vienna: Institute of Computer Graphics, Vienna University of Technology.
Saunders, M., Lewis, P., & Thornhill, A. (2009). Research method for business students (5th ed.). Prentice Hall, London: Pitman.
Sax, L. (2006). Why gender matters: what parents and teachers need to know about the emerging science of sex differences. Westminster, MD: Broadway Books.
Scatena, S., Russo, G.N., Riva, G. (2016). Virtual Reality vs television vs web exposure: the impact on brand experience. A preliminary study. Annual Review of Cybertherapy and Telemedicine, 14, 211-214.
Schroeder, J. A. (2010). Sex and gender in sensation and perception. In J. C. Chrisler, D. R. McCreary (Eds.), Handbook of gender research in psychology. Vol. 1: Gender research in general and experimental psychology (pp. 235-258). Boston: Springer.
Scott, J. (2016). Virtual Reality: content marketing’s next big trend [Web log post]. Retrieved from https://www.econsultancy.com/blog/68401-virtual-reality-contentmarketing-s-next-big-trend
Serrano, B., Botella, C., Banos, R. M., & Alcaniz, M. (2013). Using virtual reality and mood-induction procedures to test products with consumers of ceramic tiles. Computers in Human Behavior, 29(3), 648-653.
Sherman, W. R. (2003). Understanding Virtual Reality. Burlington, MA: Morgan Kaufman Publishers.
Steuer, J. (1992). Defining Virtual Reality: dimensions determining telepresence. Journal of Communication, 42(4), 73-93.
The Farm 51. (2015). VR market report. Retrieved from http://thefarm51.com/ripress/VR_market_report_2015_The_Farm51.pdf
Tomczak M., & Tomczak, E. (2014). The need to report effect size estimates revisited. An overview of some recommended measures of effect size. Trends in Sport Sciences, 1(21), 19-25.
Van Kerrebroeck, H., Brengman, M., & Willems, K. (2017a). Escaping the crowd: an experimental study on the impact of a Virtual Reality experience in a shopping mall. Computers in Human Behavior, 77, 437-450.
Van Kerrebroeck, H., Brengman, M., & Willems, K. (2017b). When brands come to life: experimental research on the vividness effect of Virtual Reality in transformational marketing communications. Virtual Reality, 21(4), 177-191.
Verhagen, T., Vonkeman, C., & van Dolen, W. (2016). Making online products more tangible: the effect of product presentation formats on product evaluations. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 19(7), 460-464.
Yin, M., Cicchirillo, V., & Drumwright, M. (2012). The impact of stereoscopic threedimensional (3-D) advertising. The role of presence in enhancing advertising effectiveness. Journal of Advertising, 41, 113-128.
Zheng, L. (2016, March 18). Alibaba spreads its wings into VR sector [Web log post]. Retrieved from http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/business/tech/2016-03/18/content_23945440.htm .