ExperimentaI cigarettes from tobaccos varying in genotype, nitrogen nutrition, stalk position, suckering practice, and curing methods were used to examine the Ievels of N-dimethylnitrosamine (DMN) in smoke. Measurable amounts of DMN were found in all experimental samples, ranging from 1.7 to 115 ng per gram of tobacco burned. DMN content in smoke generally increased as rate of N fertilization increased. However, there were wide seasonal, cultural, and varietal effects. Burley-type tobacco produced a much higher level of DMN than the bright-type tobacco. DMN content in smoke was significantly and positively related to Ieaf total N, totaI alkaloids, nicotine, nornicotine, total volatile bases and nitrate N, but negatively related to reducing sugars. Reconstituted sheet tobaccos made with homogenized-leaf-curing samples produced much lower amounts of DMN than conventionally cured leaf. Additional information is needed to elucidate the primary leaf constituents that serve as precursors of DMN.
1. Alkylierend wirkende Verbindungen, Erste Konferenz iiber N-Nitroso-Verbindungen und Lactone, Hamburg, Sept. 1963; Wissenschaftliche Forschungsstelle im Verband der Cigarettenindustrie, Hamburg.
2. Barkemeyer, H.: Detection and determination of dimethylnitrosamine in cigarette smoke; 23rd Tobacco Chem. Res. Conf., 1969, Philadelphia, Penn.
3. Bush, L. P., J. L. Sims, and W. 0. Atkinson: Volatile nitrogenous bases and aliphatic secondary amines of hurley tobacco; Can. J. Plant Sci. 50 (1970) 289-294.
4. Essigmann, J. M., and P. Issenberg: Gas-chromatographic determination of volatile nitrosamines in food; J. Food Sci. 37 (1972) 684-688.
5. Fazio, T., J. N. Damico, J. W. Howard, R. H. White, and J. O. Watts: Gas-duomatographic determination and mass-spectrometric confirmation of N-nitrodimethylamine in smoke-processed marine fish; J. Agr. Food Chem. 19 (1971) 250.
6. Hoffmann, D., and J. Vanis: Analysis of volatile N-nitrosamines in unaged mainstream of cigarettes; 25th Tob. Chem. Res. Conf., 1971, Louisville, Kentucky.
7. Johnson, D. E., and J. W. Rhoades: N-nitrosamines in smoke condensate from several varieties of tobacco; J. Nat. Cancer Inst. 48 (6) (1972) 1845 to 1847.
8. Lijinsky, W., and S. S. Epstein: Nitrosamines as environmental carcinogens; Nature 225 (1970) 21 to 23.
9. Neurath, G., B. Pirmann, and H. Wichern: The question of the N-nitroso compounds in tobacco smoke; Beitr. zur Tabakforschung 2. (1964) 311 to 319.
10. Ogg. C. L., and E. G. Sc:hultz: Jour. Assoc. Official Agri. Chemists 53 (1970) 540-545.
11. Rhoades, J, W., and D. E. Johnson: N-dimethylnitrosamine in tobacco smoke condensate; Nature 236 (1972) 307-308.
12. Serfontein, W. J., and P. Hurter: Nitrosamines as environmental carcinogens, II. Evidence for the presence of nitrosamines in tobacco smoke condensate; Cancer Research 26, Part 1 (1966) 575-579.
13. Sims, J. L., L. P. Bush, and W. O. Atkinson: Alkaloid and nitrate nitrogen concentration of two isogenic strains of hurley tobacco; J, Agr. and Food Chem. 18 (1970) 381-384.
14. Swain, P.F., and P.N. Magee: Nitrosamine induced carcinogens; Biochem. J. 110 (1968) 39-47.
15. Tso, T. C.: Physiology and biochemistry of tobacco plants, p. 28-35; Dowden, Hutchinson and Ross, Inc., Stroudsburg. Penn., 1972.
16. Tso, T. C., and R. Andersen: Methods for tobacco analysis; Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemical Analysis, Vol. 19, John WHey and Sons, New York, New York, 1974
17. Tso, T. C., R. Lowe, and D. W. DeJong: Homogenized leaf curing, I. Theoretical basis and some preliminary results; Beitr. Tabakforsch. 8 (1975) 44