Approaches to Measuring Creativity: A Systematic Literature Review

Open access


This paper presents a review of the literature on the measurement of creativity. Creativity definitions are discussed as a starting point for understanding the nature of this construct. The four major approaches to measuring creativity (process, person, product and press) are reviewed, pointing out commonly used instruments as well as the advantages and weaknesses of each approach. This review reveals that the measurement of creativity is an unsettled issue, and that the existing instruments purporting to measure creativity suffer from serious conceptual and psychometric shortcomings. Research gaps and suggestions for future research are discussed.

Abbey, A., & Dickson, J. W. (1983). R&D work climate and innovation in semiconductors. Academy of Management Journal, 26, 362-368.

*Almeida, L. S., Prieto, M. D., Ferrando, M., Oliveira, E., & Ferrándiz, C. (2008). Torrance Test of Creative Thinking: The question of its construct validity. Thinking Skills and Creativity, 3, 53-58. doi:

*Amabile, T. M. (1982). Social psychology of creativity: A Consensual Assessment Technique. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 43, 997-1013.

Amabile, T. M. (1983). The social psychology of creativity: A componential conceptualization. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 45, 357-376.

Amabile, T. M. (1988). A model of creativity and innovation in organizations. In B. M. Staw, & L. L. Cummings (Eds.), Research in organizational behavior (pp. 123-167). Greenwish, CT: JAI Press.

Amabile, T. M. (1996). Evidence to support the componential model of creativity: Secondary analyses of three studies. Creativity Research Journal, 9, 385-389.

*Amabile, T. M., Conti, R., Coon, H., Lazenby, J., & Herron, M. (1996). Assessing the work environment for creativity. The Academy of Management Journal, 39, 1154-1184.

*Amabile, T. M., & Gryskiewicz, N. (1989). The creative environment scales: Work Environment Inventory. Creativity Research Journal, 2, 231-253.

Amabile, T. M., Schatzel, E., Moneta, G. B., & Kramer, S. J. (2004). Leader behaviors and the work environment for creativity: Perceived leader support. The Leadership Quarterly, 15, 5-32.

*Anderson, N. R., & West, M. A. (1998). Measuring climate for work group innovation: Development and validation of the team climate inventory. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 19, 235-258.

*Bachelor, P. (1989). Maximum likelihood confirmatory factor-analytic investigation of factors within Guilford's Structure of Intellect model. Journal of Applied Psychology, 74, 797-804.

*Bachelor, P., & Michael, W. B. (1991). Higher-order factors of creativity within Guilford's structure-of-intellect model: A re-analysis of a fifty-three variable data base. Creativity Research Journal, 4, 157-175.

*Bachelor, P., Michael, W. B., & Kim, S. (1994). First-order and higher-order semantic and figural factors in Structure-of-Intellect Divergent Production measures. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 54, 608-619.

*Baer, J. (1991). Generality of creativity across performance domains. Creativity Research Journal, 4, 23-39.

Baer, J. (1993). Creativity and divergent thinking: A task-specific approach. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

*Baer, J. (1994a). Divergent thinking is not a general trait: A multi-domain training experiment. Creativity Research Journal, 7, 35-46.

*Baer, J. (1994b). Generality of creativity across performance domains: A replication. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 79, 1217-1218.

*Baer, J. (1994c). Performance assessments of creativity: Do they have long-term stability? Roeper Review, 7, 7-11.

Baer, J. (1994d). Why you still shouldn’t trust creativity tests. Educational Leadership, 52, 72-73.

*Baer, J. (2011). How divergent thinking tests mislead us: Are the Torrance Tests still relevant in the 21st century? The division 10 debate. Psychology of Aesthetics, Creativity, and the Arts, 5, 309-313. doi:

*Baer, J. (2012). Domain specificity and the limits of creativity theory. The Journal of Creative Behavior, 46, 16-29. doi:

*Baer, J. (2015). The importance of domain-specific expertise in creativity. Roeper Review, 37, 165-178. doi:

*Baer, J. (2016). Domain specificity of creativity. San Diego, CA: Elsevier Academic Press.

*Baer, J., Kaufman, J. C., & Gentile, C. A. (2004). Extension of the Consensual Assessment Technique to nonparallel creative products. Creativity Research Journal, 16, 113-17.

*Baer, J., & McKool, S. S. (2009). Assessing creativity using the Consensual Assessment Technique. In C. S. Schreiner (Ed.), Handbook of research on assessment technologies, methods, and applications in higher education (pp. 65-77). Hershey, PA: IGI Global.

*Baer, J., & McKool, S. S. (2014). The gold standard for assessing creativity. International Journal of Quality Assurance in Engineering and Technology Education, 3, 81-93. doi:

*Barbot, B., Besançon, M., & Lubart, T. I. (2011). Assessing creativity in the classroom. The Open Education Journal, 4, 124-132. doi:

*Barbot, B., Besançon, M., & Lubart, T. I. (2015). Creative potential in educational settings: Its nature, measure, and nurture. Education 3-13, 43, 371-381. doi:

*Barron, F., & Harrington, D. (1981). Creativity, intelligence, and personality. Annual Review of Psychology, 32, 439-476.

*Batey, M. (2007). A psychometric investigation of everyday creativity. Unpublished Doctoral Thesis. London: University College.

*Batey, M. (2012). The measurement of creativity: From definitional consensus to the introduction of a new heuristic framework. Creativity Research Journal, 24, 55-65. doi:

*Batey, M., Chamorro-Premuzic, T., & Furnham, A. (2010). Individual differences in ideational behavior: Can the big five and psychometric intelligence predict creativity scores? Creativity Research Journal, 22, 90-97. doi:

*Batey, M., & Furnham, A. (2006). Creativity, intelligence, and personality: A critical review of the scattered literature. Genetic, Social, and General Psychology Monographs, 132, 355-429.

*Belcher, T. L., Rubovits, J. J., & Di Meo, P. A. (1981). Measurement of creativity: A factor analytic study. Psychological Reports, 48, 819-825.

Besançon, M., & Lubart, T. I. (2008). Differences in the development of creative competencies in children schooled in diverse learning environments. Learning and Individual Differences, 18, 381-389. doi:

Biernat, M. (2003). Toward a broader view of social stereotyping. American Psychologist, 58, 1019-1027.

Blamiresa, M., & Peterson, A. (2014). Can creativity be assessed? Towards an evidenceinformed framework for assessing and planning progress in creativity. Cambridge Journal of Education, 44, 147-162. doi:

*Brinkman, D. (1999). Problem finding, creativity style and the musical compositions of high school students. The Journal of Creative Behavior, 33, 62-68.

*Brougher, S. J., & Rantanen, E. M. (2009). Creativity and design: Creativity’s new definition and its relationship to design. Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, 1, 605-609. doi:

*Carson, S. H., Peterson, J. B., & Higgins, D. M. (2005). Reliability, validity, and factor structure of the creative achievement questionnaire. Creativity Research Journal, 17, 37-50.

Christiaans, H. H. C. M. (2002). Creativity as a design criterion. Creativity Research Journal, 14, 41-54.

*Clapham, M. M. (1998). Structure of the figural forms A and B of the Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 58, 275-283.

*Clapham, M. M. (2004). The convergent validity of the Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking and creativity interest inventories. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 64, 828-841.

Colangelo, N., Kerr, B., Hallowell, K., Huesman, R., & Gaeth, J. (1992). The Iowa inventiveness inventory: Toward a measure of mechanical inventiveness. Creativity Research Journal, 5, 157-163.

*Couger, J. D., Higgins, L. F., & McIntyre, S. C. (1993). (Un)structured creativity in information systems organizations. MIS Quarterly, 17, 375-397.

Craft, A. (2001). An analysis of research and literature on creativity in education. Report prepared for the qualifications and curriculum authority. Available at

*Cramond, B., Matthews-Morgan, J., Bandalos, D., & Zuo, L. (2005). A report on the 40- year follow-up of the Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking: Alive and well in the new millennium. Gifted Child Quarterly, 49, 283-291.

*Cropley, A. J. (1972). A five-year longitudinal study of DT tests. Developmental Psychology, 6, 119-124.

*Cropley, A. J. (2000). Defining and measuring creativity: Are creativity tests worth using? Roeper Review, 23, 72-79.

*Cropley, A. J., & Maslany, G. W. (1969). Reliability and factorial validity of the Wallach- Kogan Creativity Tests. British Journal of Psychology, 60, 395-398.

*Davidovitch, N., & Milgram, R. M. (2006). Creative thinking as a predictor of teacher effectiveness in higher education. Creativity Research Journal, 18, 385-390.

Davies, D., Jindal-Snape, D., Collier, C., Digby, R., Hay, P., & Howe, A. (2013). Creative learning environments in education-A systematic literature review. Thinking Skills and Creativity, 8, 80-91. doi:

*Davis, G. A. (1975). In frumious pursuit of the creative person. The Journal of Creative Behavior, 9, 75-87.

*Davis, G. A., & Subkoviak, M. J. (1975). Multidimensional analysis of a personalitybased test of creative potential. Journal of Educational Measurement, 12, 37-43.

Denison, D. R. (1996). What is the difference between organizational culture and organizational climate? A native's point of view on a decade of paradigm wars. The Academy of Management Review, 21, 619-654.

*Diakidoy, I. N., & Spanoudis, G. (2002). Domain specificity in creativity testing: A comparison of performance on a general divergent-thinking test and a parallel, content- specific test. The Journal of Creative Behavior, 36, 41-61.

*Dixon, J. (1979). Quality versus quantity: The need to control for the fluency factor in originality scores from the Torrance Tests. Journal for the Education of the Gifted, 2, 70-79.

Ericsson, K. A. (1999). Creative expertise as superior reproducible performance: Innovative and flexible aspects of expert performance. Psychological Inquiry, 10, 329-333.

Ericsson, K. A., Krampe, R. T., & Tesch-Römer, C. (1993). The role of deliberate practice in the acquisition of expert performance. Psychological Review, 100, 363-406.

Feist, G. J. (1998). A meta-analysis of personality in scientific and artistic creativity. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 2, 290-309.

Feist, G. J. (1999). The influence of personality on artistic and scientific creativity. In R. J. Sternberg (Ed.), Handbook of creativity. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Finke, R. A., Ward, T. M., & Smith, S. M. (1992). Creative cognition: Theory, research, and applications. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

*Fishkin, A. S., & Johnson, A. S. (1998). Who is creative? Identifying children’s creative abilities. Roeper Review, 21(1), 40-46. doi:

*Fleenor, J. W., & Taylor, S. (1994). Construct validity of three self-report measures of creativity. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 54, 464-470.

Forrester, V., & Hui, A. (2007). Creativity in the Honk Kong classroom: What is the contextual practice? Thinking Skills and Creativity, 2, 30-38.

*Fraser, B. J., Treagust, D. F., & Dennis, N. (1986). Development of an instrument for assessing classroom psychosocial environment at universities and colleges. Studies in Higher Education, 11, 43-54.

*Furnham, A., Batey, M., Anand, K., & Manfield, J. (2008). Personality, hypomania, intelligence and creativity. Personality and Individual Differences, 44, 1060-1069. doi:

Gajda, A., Karwowski, M., & Beghetto, R. A. (2016). Creativity and academic achievement: A meta-analysis. Journal of Educational Psychology. Advance online publication. doi. 10.1037/edu0000133

*Galati, F. (2015). Complexity of judgment: What makes possible the convergence of expert and nonexpert ratings in assessing creativity. Creativity Research Journal, 27, 24-30. doi:

Gardner, H. (1993). Creating minds. New York: Basic Books.

Geis, G.T. (1988). Making Companies Creative. In R. L. Kuhn (ed.), Handbook for creative and innovative managers (pp. 25-33). New York: McGraw-Hill.

*Getzels, J. W., & Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1976) The creative vision: A longitudinal study of problem finding in Art. New York: Wiley.

*Gluck, J., Ernst, R., & Unger, F. (2002). How creatives define creativity: Definitions reflect different types of creativity. Creativity Research Journal, 14, 55-67.

*Goldsmith, R. E., & Matherly, T. A. (1988). Creativity and self-esteem: A multiple operationalization validity study. The Journal of Psychology, 122, 47-56.

*González, M. A., Campos, A., & Pérez, M. J. (1997). Mental imagery and creative thinking. The Journal of Psychology, 131, 357-364.

*Gough, H. G. (1979). A creative personality scale for the Adjective Check List. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 37, 1398-1405.

Guilford, J. P. (1950). Creativity. American Psychologist, 5, 444-454.

Guilford, J. P. (1967). The nature of human intelligence. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Guilford, J. P. (1975). Creativity: A quarter century of progress. In I. A. Taylor, & J. W. Getzels (Eds.), Perspectives in creativity (pp. 37-59). Chicago: Aldine.

*Han, K. (2003). Domain-specificity of creativity in young children: How quantitative and qualitative data support it. The Journal of Creative Behavior, 37, 117-142.

*Han, K., & Marvin, C. (2002). Multiple creativities? Investigating domain-specificity of creativity in young children. Gifted Child Quarterly, 46, 98-109.

Harrington, D. (1975). Effects of explicit instructions to "be creative" on the psychological meaning of divergent thinking test scores. Journal of Personality, 43, 434-454.

Harrington, D. (1990). The ecology of human creativity: A psychological perspective. In M. Runco, & R. Albert (Eds.), Theories of creativity (pp. 143-169). Newbury Park, CA: SAGE.

*Heausler, N. L., & Thompson, B. (1988). Structure of the Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 48, 463-468.

Hekkert, P., & Van Wieringen, P. C. W. (1996). Beauty in the eye of expert and nonexpert beholders: A study in the appraisal of art. American Journal of Psychology, 109, 389-407.

*Hennessey, B. A., & Amabile, T. M. (2010). Creativity. Annual Review of Psychology, 61, 569-598. doi:

*Hennessey, B. A., Amabile, T. M., & Mueller, J. S. (2011). Consensual Assessment. In M. A. Runco, & S. R. Pritzker (Eds.) Encyclopedia of creativity, vol. 1 (2nd ed.) (pp. 253-260). San Diego: Academic Press.

*Hickey, M. (2001). An application of Amabile’s Consensual Assessment Technique for rating the creativity of children’s musical compositions. Journal of Research in Music Education, 49, 234-244.

*Hocevar, D. (1979a). A comparison of statistical infrequency and subjective judgment as criteria in the measurement of originality. Journal of Personality Assessment, 43, 297-299.

*Hocevar, D. (1979b). Ideational fluency as a confounding factor in the measurement of originality. Journal of Educational Psychology, 71, 191-196.

*Hocevar, D. (1979c). The development of the Creative Behavior Inventory (CBI). Paper presented at the 1979 conference of the Rocky Mountain Psychological Association, Las Vegas, Nevada (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED170350).

*Hocevar, D. (1979d). The unidimensional nature of creative thinking in fifth grade children. Child Study Journal, 9, 273-278.

*Hocevar, D. (1980). Intelligence, divergent thinking, and creativity. Intelligence, 4, 25- 40.

*Hocevar, D. (1981). Measurement of creativity: Review and critique. Journal of Personality Assessment, 45, 450-464.

*Hocevar, D., & Bachelor, P. (1989). A taxonomy and critique of measurements used in the study of creativity. In J. A. Glover, R. R. Ronning, & C. R. Reynolds (Eds.), Handbook of creativity (pp. 53-75). New York: Plenum Press.

*Hocevar, D., & Michael, W. B. (1979). The effects of scoring formulas on the discriminant validity of tests of divergent thinking. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 39, 917-921.

Hoelcher, M., & Schubert, M. (2015). Potential and problems of existing creativity and innovation indices. Creativity Research Journal, 27, 1-15. doi:

Holland, J. L., & Nichols, R. (1964). Prediction of academic and extracurricular achievement in college. Journal of Educational Psychology, 55, 55-65.

*Horn, D., & Salvendy, G. (2006). Consumer-based assessment of product creativity: A review and reappraisal. Human Factors and Ergonomics in Manufacturing, 16, 155-175.

*Isaksen, S. G., Lauer, K. J., & Ekvall, G. (1999). Situational Outlook Questionnaire: A measure of the climate for creativity and change. Psychological Reports, 85, 665-674.

James, K., & Asmus, C., (2000-2001). Personality, cognitive skills, and creativity in different life domains. Creativity Research Journal, 13, 149-159.

James, K., Clark, K., & Cropanzano, R. (1999). Positive and negative creativity in groups, institutions, and organizations: A model and theoretical extension. Creativity Research Journal, 12, 211-226.

*Jauk, E., Benedek, M., & Neubauer, A. C. (2014). The road to creative achievement: A latent variable model of ability and personality predictors. European Journal of Personality, 28, 95-105. doi:

*Kaufman, J. C. (2012). Counting the Muses: Development of the Kaufman Domains of Creativity Scale (K-DOCS). Psychology of Aesthetics, Creativity, and the Arts, 6, 298-308. doi:

*Kaufman, J. C., & Baer, J. (2004). Hawking's Haiku, Madonna's math: Why it is hard to be creative in every room of the house. In R. J. Sternberg, E. L. Grigorenko, & J. L. Singer (Eds.), Creativity: From potential to realization (pp. 3-19). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

*Kaufman, J. C., & Baer, J. (2012). Beyond new and appropriate: Who decides what is creative? Creativity Research Journal, 24, 83-91. doi:

*Kaufman, J. C., Baer, J., Cole, J. C., & Sexton, J. D. (2008). A comparison of expert and nonexpert raters using the Consensual Assessment Technique. Creativity Research Journal, 20, 171-178. doi:

*Kaufman, J. C., Evans, M. L., & Baer, J. (2010). The American Idol Effect: Are students good judges of their creativity across domains? Empirical Studies of the Arts, 28, 3-17. doi:

*Kaufman, J. C., Lee, J., Baer, J., & Lee, S. (2007). Captions, consistency, creativity, and the Consensual Assessment Technique: New evidence of reliability. Thinking Skills and Creativity, 2, 96-106.

*Kaufman, J. C., Plucker, J. A., & Russell, C. M. (2012). Identifying and assessing creativity as a component of giftedness. Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment, 30, 60-73. doi:

Kaufman, J. C., & Sternberg, R. J. (2007). Resource review: Creativity. Change, 39, 55-58.

*Khatena, J., & Torrance, E. P. (1973). Thinking creatively with sounds and words: Technical Manual (Research Ed.). Lexington, MA: Personnel Press.

*Khattab, A., Michael, W. B., & Hocevar, D. (1982). The construct validity of higher order Structure-of-Intellect abilities in a battery of tests emphasizing the product of transformations: A confirmatory maximum likelihood factor analysis. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 42, 1089-1105.

*Kim, K. H. (2006a). Can we trust creativity tests? A review of the Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking (TTCT). Creativity Research Journal, 18, 3-14.

*Kim, K. H. (2006b). Is creativity unidimensional or multidimensional? Analyses of the Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking. Creativity Research Journal, 18, 251-259.

Kim, K. H. (2008). Meta-analyses of the relationship of creative achievement to both IQ and divergent thinking test scores. The Journal of Creative Behavior, 42, 106-130. doi:

*Kim, K. H., Cramond, B., & Bandalos, D. L. (2006). The latent structure and measurement invariance of scores on the Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking-figural. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 66, 459-477.

*King, L. A., Walker, L. M., & Broyles, S. J. (1996). Creativity and the five-factor model. Journal of Research in Personality, 30, 189-203.

*Kogan, N., & Pankove, E. (1974). Long-term predictive validity of divergent-thinking tests: Some negative evidence. Journal of Educational Psychology, 66, 802-810.

*Krumm, G., Aranguren, M., Filippetti, V. A., & Lemos, V. (2014). Factor structure of the Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking verbal form B in a Spanish-speaking population. The Journal of Creative Behavior, 50, 150-164. doi:

*Krumm, G., Filippetti, V. A., Lemos, V., Koval, J., & Balabanian, C. (2016). Construct validity and factorial invariance across sex of the Torrance Test of Creative Thinking - figural Form A in Spanish-speaking children. Thinking Skills and Creativity, 22, 180-189. doi:

*Krumm, G., Lemos, V., & Filippetti, V. A. (2014). Factor structure of the Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking figural form B in Spanish-speaking children: Measurement invariance across gender. Creativity Research Journal, 26, 72-81. doi:

*Lee, S., Lee, J., & Youn, C.-Y. (2005). A variation of CAT for measuring creativity in business products. Korean Journal of Thinking and Problem Solving, 15, 143-153.

*Lemons, G. (2011). Diverse perspectives of creativity testing: Controversial issues when used for inclusion into gifted programs. Journal for the Education of the Gifted, 34, 742-772. doi:

Leung, A. K.-Y., Maddux, W. W., Galinsky, A. D., & Chiu, C-Y. (2008). Multicultural experience enhances creativity: The when and how. American Psychologist, 63, 169-181. doi:

Lindauer, M. S. (1991). Comparisons between museum and mass-produced art. Empirical Studies of the Arts, 9, 11-22.

Lindauer, M. S., & Long, D. A. (1986). The criteria used to judge art: Marketplace and academic comparisons. Empirical Studies of the Arts, 4, 163-174.

Lubart, T. I. (2001). Models of the creative process: Past, present and future. Creativity Research Journal, 13, 295-308.

Lubart, T. I., & Guignard, J. (2004). The generality-specificity of creativity: A multivariate approach. In R. J. Sternberg, E. L. Grigorenko, & J. L. Singer (Eds.), Creativity: From potential to realization (pp. 43-56). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

*Lubart, T. I., Zenasni, F., & Barbot, B. (2013). Creative potential and its measurement. International Journal for Talent Development and Creativity, 1, 41-51.

*Mace, D. E., Michael, W. B., & Hocevar, D. (1985). Validity of higher-order ability constructs in Structure-Of-Intellect tests all involving semantic content and operations of cognition or evaluation: A confirmatory maximum likelihood factor analysis. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 45, 353-359.

*Mathisen, G. E., & Einarsen, S. (2004). A review of instruments assessing creative and innovative environments within organizations. Creativity Research Journal, 16, 119-140.

Mayer, R. E. (1999). Fifty years of Creativity Research. In R. J. Sternberg (Ed.) Handbook of Creativity (pp. 449-460). New York: Cambridge University Press.

McLaren, R. B. (1993). The dark side of creativity. Creativity Research Journal, 6, 137-144.

Mednick, S. A. (1962). The associative basis of the creative process. Psychological Review, 69, 220-232.

*Michael, W. B., & Bachelor, P. (1990). Higher-order structure-of-intellect creativity factors in divergent production tests: A re-analysis of a Guilford data base. Creativity Research Journal, 3, 58-74.

*Milgram, R. M., & Hong, E. (1993). Creative thinking and creative performance in adolescents as predictors of creative attainments in adults: A follow-up study after 18 years. Roeper Review, 15, 135-139.

*Miller, A. L. (2014). A self-report measure of cognitive processes associated with creativity. Creativity Research Journal, 26, 203-218. doi:

*Moos, R. (1986). Work Environment Scale: Manual. Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press.

*Mouchiroud, C., & Lubart, T. (2001). Children's original thinking: An empirical examination of alternative measures derived from divergent thinking tasks. The Journal of Genetic Psychology, 162, 382-401.

*Mumford, M. D. (2003). Where have we been, where are we going? Taking stock in creativity research. Creativity Research Journal, 15, 107-120.

Ng, T. W. H., & Feldman, D. C. (2012). A comparison of self-ratings and non-self-report measures of employee creativity. Human Relations, 65, 1021-1047. doi:

*Niu, W., & Sternberg, R. J. (2001). Cultural influences on artistic creativity and its evaluation. International Journal of Psychology, 36, 225-241.

Okuda, S. M., Runco, M. A., & Berger, D. E. (1991). Creativity and the finding and solving of real-world problems. Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment, 9, 45-53.

*O'Quin, K., & Besemer, S. P. (1989). The development, reliability, and validity of the revised creative product semantic scale. Creativity Research Journal, 2, 267-278.

*Palmiero, M., Nori, R., Aloisi, V., Ferrara, M., & Piccardi, L. (2015). Domain-specificity of creativity: A study on the relationship between visual creativity and visual mental imagery. Frontiers in Psychology, 6, 1-8. doi:

Paramithaa, A., & Indarti, N. (2014). Impact of the environment support on creativity: Assessing the mediating role of intrinsic motivation. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 115, 102-114. doi:

*Park, N. K., Chun, M. Y., & Lee, J. (2016). Revisiting individual creativity assessment: Triangulation in subjective and objective assessment methods. Creativity Research Journal, 28, 1-10. doi:

*Patterson, M. G., West, M. A., Shackleton, V. J., Dawson, J. F., Lawthom, R., Maitlis, S., Robinson, D. L., & Wallace, A. M. (2005). Validating the organizational climate measure: Links to managerial practices, productivity and innovation. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 26, 379-408.

*Piffer, D. (2012). Can creativity be measured? An attempt to clarify the notion of creativity and general directions for future research. Thinking Skills and Creativity, 7, 258-264. doi:

*Plucker, J. A. (1999a). Is the proof in the pudding? Reanalyses of Torrance's (1958 to present) longitudinal data. Creativity Research Journal, 12, 103-114.

*Plucker, J. A. (1999b). Reanalyses of student responses to creativity checklists: Evidence of content generality. The Journal of Creative Behavior, 33, 126-137.

*Plucker, J. A., & Makel, M. C. (2010). Assessment of creativity. In J. Kaufman, & R. J. Sternberg (Eds.), The Cambridge handbook of creativity. New York: Cambridge University Press.

*Plucker, J. A., Qian, M., & Wang, S. (2011). Is originality in the eye of the beholder? Comparison of scoring techniques in the assessment of divergent thinking. The Journal of Creative Behavior, 45, 1-22. doi:

*Plucker, J. A., & Renzulli, J. S. (1999). Psychometric approaches to the study of creativity. In R. J. Sternberg (Ed.). Handbook of human creativity (pp. 35-60). New York: Cambridge University Press.

*Plucker, J. A., & Runco, M. A. (1998). The death of creativity measurement directions in creativity assessment has been greatly exaggerated: Current issues, recent advances, and future. Roeper Review, 21, 36-39.

Podsakoff, P. M., MacKenzie, S. B., Lee, J., & Podsakoff, N. P. (2003). Common method biases in behavioral research: A critical review of the literature and recommended remedies. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88, 879-903.

*Priest, T. (2006). Self-evaluation, creativity, and musical achievement. Psychology of Music, 34, 47-61.

Primi, R. (2014). Divergent productions of metaphors: Combining many-facet Rasch measurement and cognitive psychology in the assessment of creativity. Psychology of Aesthetics, Creativity, and the Arts (online publication). doi:

*Raudsepp, E. (1981). How creative are you? New York: Perigee.

*Reiter-Palmon, R., Robinson-Morral, E. J., Kaufman, J. C., & Santo, J. B. (2012). Evaluation of self-perceptions of creativity: Is it a useful criterion? Creativity Research Journal, 24, 107-114. doi:

Rhodes, M. (1961). An analysis of creativity. Phi Delta Kappan, 42, 109-135.

Rudowicz, E. (2003). Creativity and culture: A two way interaction. Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, 47, 273-290.

*Runco, M. A. (1984). Teachers' judgments of creativity and social validation of divergent thinking tests. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 59, 711-717.

*Runco, M. A. (1986). Divergent thinking and creative performance in gifted and nongifted children. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 46, 375-384.

*Runco, M. A. (1987). The generality of creative performance in gifted and nongifted children. Gifted Child Quarterly, 31, 121-125.

*Runco, M. A. (1993). Divergent thinking, creativity, and giftedness. Gifted Child Quarterly, 37, 16-22.

*Runco, M. A. (2004). Creativity. Annual Review of Psychology, 55, 657-687.

*Runco, M. A. (2007). Creativity. Theories and themes: Research, development and practice. Amsterdam: Elsevier.

*Runco, M. A. (2008). Commentary: Divergent thinking is not synonymous with creativity. Psychology of Aesthetics, Creativity, and the Arts, 2, 93-96. doi:

*Runco, M. A., & Acar, S. (2012). Divergent thinking as an indicator of creative potential. Creativity Research Journal, 24, 66-75. doi:

Runco, M. A., & Bahleda, M. D. (1986). Implicit theories of artistic, scientific, and everyday creativity. The Journal of Creative Behavior, 20, 93-98.

Runco, M. A., & Jaeger, G. J. (2012). The standard definition of creativity. Creativity Research Journal, 24, 92-96. doi:

Runco, M. A., & Johnson, D. J. (1993). Parents’ and teachers’ implicit theories of children’s creativity. Child Study Journal, 23, 91-113.

*Runco, M. A., McCarthy, K. A., & Svenson, E. (1993). Judgments of the creativity of artwork from students and professional artists. The Journal of Psychology, 128, 23-31.

*Runco, M. A., Millar, G., Acar, S., & Cramond, B. (2010). Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking as predictors of personal and public achievement: A fifty year follow up. Creativity Research Journal, 22, 361-368. doi:

*Runco, M. A., & Mraz, W. (1992). Scoring divergent thinking tests using total ideational output and a creativity index. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 52, 213-221.

*Runco, M. A., & Okuda, S. M. (1988). Problem discovery, divergent thinking, and the creative process. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 17, 211-220.

*Runco, M. A., Okuda, S. M., & Thurston, B. J. (1987).The psychometric properties of four systems for scoring divergent thinking tests. Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment, 5, 149-156.

*Runco, M. A., & Smith, W. R. (1992). Interpersonal and intrapersonal evaluations of creative ideas. Personality and Individual Differences, 13, 295-302.

Schneider, B., & Reichers, A. E. (1983). On the etiology of climates. Personnel Psychology, 36, 19-39.

*Shalley, C. E., Zhou, J., & Oldham, G. R. (2004). The effects of personal and contextual characteristics on creativity: Where should we go from here? Journal of Management, 30, 933-958.

*Siegel, S. M., & Kaemmerer, W. F. (1978). Measuring the perceived support for innovation in organizations. Journal of Applied Psychology, 63, 553-562.

Silvia, P. J. (2015). Intelligence and creativity are pretty similar after all. Educational Psychological Review (online publication). doi:

*Silvia, P. J., Martin, C., &, Nusbaum, E. C. (2009). A snapshot of creativity: Evaluating a quick and simple method for assessing divergent thinking. Thinking Skills and Creativity, 4, 79-85. doi:

*Silvia, P. J., Wigert, B., Reiter-Palmon, R., & Kaufman, J. C. (2012). Assessing creativity with self-report scales: A review and empirical evaluation. Psychology of Aesthetics, Creativity, and the Arts, 6, 19-34. doi:

*Skager, R. W., Klein, S. P., & Schultz, C. B. (1967). The prediction of academic and artistic achievement at a school of design. Journal of Educational Measurement, 4, 105-117.

Sternberg, R. J. (1985). Implicit theories of intelligence, creativity, and wisdom. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 49, 607-627.

Sternberg, R. J., Conway, B. E., Ketron, J. L., & Bernstein, M. (1981). People's conceptions of intelligence. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 41, 37-55.

Sternberg, R. J., & Lubart T. I. (1999). The concept of creativity: Prospects and paradigms. In R. J. Sternberg (Ed.), Handbook of creativity (pp. 3-15). New York: Cambridge University Press.

Thomas, N. G., & Berk, L. E. (1981). Effects of school environments on the development of young children's creativity. Child Development, 52, 1153-1162.

*Thompson, G., & Lordan, M. (1999). A review of creativity principles applied to engineering design. Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part E: Journal of Process Mechanical Engineering, 213, 17-31.

*Torrance, E. P. (1966). The Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking: Norms-technical manual. Lexington, MA: Personal Press.

*Torrance, E. P. (1969). Prediction of adult creative achievement among high school seniors. Gifted Child Quarterly, 13, 223-229.

*Torrance, E. P. (1972a). Career patterns and peak creative achievements of creative high school students 12 years later. Gifted Child Quarterly, 16, 75-88.

*Torrance, E. P. (1972b). Predictive validity of the Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking. The Journal of Creative Behavior, 6, 236-252.

*Torrance, E. P. (1977). Creativity in the classroom: What research says to the teacher. Washington, DC: National Education Association.

*Torrance, E. P. (1980). Growing up creatively gifted: The 22-year longitudinal study. The Creative Child and Adult Quarterly, 5, 148-158.

*Torrance, E. P. (1981a). Empirical validation of criterion referenced indicators of creative ability through a longitudinal study. The Creative Child and Adult Quarterly, 6, 136-140.

*Torrance, E. P. (1981b). Predicting the creativity of elementary school children (1958-80) and the teacher who made a difference. Gifted Child Quarterly, 25, 55-62.

*Torrance, E. P. (2008). The Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking-norms-technical manual- figural (streamlined) forms A and B. Bensenville, IL: Scholastic Testing Service.

*Torrance, E. P., & Haensly, P. A. (2003). Assessment of creativity in children and adolescents. In C. R. Reynoolds, & R. W. Kamphaus (Eds.) Handbook of psychological and educational assessment of children: Intelligence, aptitude and achievement (2nd ed.) (pp. 584-607). New York: The Guildford Press.

Treffinger, D. J. (1996). Creativity, creative thinking, and critical thinking: In search of definitions. Sarasota, FL: Center for Creative Learning.

*Treffinger, D. J., Renzulli, J., & Feldhusen, J. (1971). Problems in the assessment of creative thinking. The Journal of Creative Behavior, 5, 104-112.

*Treffinger, D. J., Young, G. C., Selby, E. C., & Shepardson, C. (2002). Assessing creativity: A guide for educators. Sarasota: Center for Creative Learning.

*Ulosevich, S. N., Michael, W. B., & Bachelor, P. (1991). Higher-order factors in Structure -of-Intellect (SOI) aptitude tests hypothesized to portray constructs of military leadership: A re-analysis of an SOI data base. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 51, 15-37.

Ursyn, A. (2014). Perceptions of Knowledge Visualization: Explaining Concepts through Meaningful Images. Hershey, PA: IGI Global.

Vaughn, V. L., Feldhusen, J. F., & Asher, J. W. (1991). Meta-analyses and review of research on pull-out programs in gifted education. Gifted Child Quarterly, 35, 92-98.

*Vincent, P. H., Decker, B. P., & Mumford, M. D. (2002). Divergent thinking, intelligence, and expertise: A test of alternative models. Creativity Research Journal, 14, 163-178.

*Wallach, M. A., & Kogan, N. (1965). Modes of thinking in young children: A study of the creativity intelligence distinction. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.

*Wechsler, S. (2006). Validity of the Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking to the Brazilian culture. Creativity Research Journal, 18, 15-25.

Weisberg, R. W. (2006). Creativity: understanding innovation in problem solving, science, invention, and the arts. Hoboken, N.J.: John Wiley & Sons.

Westby, E. L., & Dawson, V. L. (1995). Creativity: Asset or burden in the classroom? Creativity Research Journal, 8, 1-10.

*Williams, F. (1980). Creativity assessment packet. Buffalo, NY: DOK.

Zeng, L., Proctor, R. W., & Salvendy, G. (2009). Fostering creativity in service development: Facilitating service innovation by the creative cognition approach. Service Science, 1, 142-153. doi:

*Zeng, L., Proctor, R. W., & Salvendy, G. (2011). Can traditional divergent thinking tests be trusted in measuring and predicting real-world creativity? Creativity Research Journal, 23, 24-37. doi:

*Zhou, J., & Shalley, C. E. (2003). Research on employee creativity: A critical review and directions for future research. Research in Personnel and Human Resources Management, 22, 165-217.

Journal Information

Cited By


All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 866 866 149
PDF Downloads 612 612 135