Creativity and Leadership in Organizations: A Literature Review

Open access

Abstract

Despite the importance to researchers and organizations of how creativity contributes to effective leadership and how leadership contributes to group and organizational creativity, our knowledge regarding this interrelationship remains largely limited. A review of the literature based on both theoretical grounds and empirical evidence reveals that studies examining the intersection between creativity and leadership in organizations are divergent in terms of how they conceptualize this relationship. A multi-level framework is used to synthesize the knowledge in both creativity and leadership disciplines, with multiple themes having been found at each level of the framework.

Achrol, R. S. (1991). Evolution of the marketing organization: New forms for turbulent environments. Journal of Marketing, 55(4), 77-93.

Ahuja, G., & Katila, R. (2001). Technological acquisitions and the innovation performance of acquiring firms: A longitudinal study. Strategic Management Journal, 22, 197-220.

Amabile, T. M., Schatzel, E. A., Moneta, G. B., & Kramer, S. J. (2004). Leader behaviors and the work environment for creativity: Perceived leader support. The Leadership Quarterly, 15, 5-32.

Amabile, T. M. (1983). The social psychology of creativity: A componential conceptualization. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 45, 357-376.

Amabile, T. M. (1997). Motivating creativity in organizations: On doing what you love and loving what you do. California Management Review, 40(1), 39-58.

Amabile, T. M., Conti, R., Coon, H., Lazenby, J., & Herron, M. (1996). Assessing the work environment for creativity. Academy of Management Journal, 39, 1154-1184.

Amabile, T. M., & Gryskiewicz, N. D. (1989). The creative environment scales: Work environment inventory. Creativity Research Journal, 2, 231-253.

Amabile, T. M., Schatzel, E. A., Moneta, G. B., & Kramer, S. J. (2006). Corrigendum to ‘leader behaviors and the work environment for creativity: Perceived leader support’ [the leadership quarterly, 15 (2004) 5-32]. The Leadership Quarterly, 17, 679-680.

Antes, A. L., & Schuelke, M. J. (2011). Leveraging technology to develop creative leadership capacity. Advances in Developing Human Resources, 13, 318-365.

Avolio, B. J. (2007). Promoting more integrative strategies for leadership theory-building. American Psychologist, 62, 25-33.

Basadur, M. (1995). Optimal ideation-evaluation ratios. Creativity Research Journal, 8, 63-75.

Basadur, M. (2004). Leading others to think innovatively together: Creative leadership. The Leadership Quarterly, 15, 103-121.

Basadur, M., Pringle, P., & Kirkland, D. (2002). Crossing cultures: Training effects on the divergent thinking attitudes of Spanish-speaking South American managers. Creativity Research Journal, 14, 395-408.

Basadur, M., Wakabayashi, M., & Takai, J. (1992). Training effects on the divergent thinking attitudes of Japanese managers. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 16, 329-345.

Bass, B. M. (1996). A new paradigm of leadership: An inquiry into transformational leadership. Alexandria, VA, US: US Army Research Institute for the Behavioral & Social Sciences.

Begley, T. M., & Boyd, D. P. (1987). Psychological characteristics associated with performance in entrepreneurial firms and smaller businesses. Journal of Business Venturing, 2, 79-93.

Berghman, L. A. (2012). Strategic innovation in established companies: An empirical study of appropriate ambidexterity strategies. International Journal of Innovation Management, 16(1), 1250007-1 – 1250007-30

Bono, J. E., & Judge, T. A. (2004). Personality and transformational and transactional leadership: A meta-analysis. Journal of Applied Psychology, 89, 901-910.

Bouty, I. (2000). Interpersonal and interaction influences on informal resource exchanges between R&D researchers across organizational boundaries. Academy of Management Journal, 43, 50-65.

Brown, J. S., & Duguid, P. (2001). Knowledge and organization: A social-practice perspective. Organization Science, 12, 198-213.

Brown, S. L., & Eisenhardt, K. M. (1997). The art of continuous change: Linking complexity theory and time-paced evolution in relentlessly shifting organizations. Administrative Science Quarterly, 42, 1-34.

Budner, S. (1962). Intolerance of ambiguity as a personality variable. Journal of Personality, 30, 29-50.

Castro, F., Gomes, J., & de Sousa, F. C. (2012). Do intelligent leaders make a difference? the effect of a leader’s emotional intelligence on followers’ creativity. Creativity and Innovation Management, 21, 171-182.

Chen, Y. (2003). High school principals’ managerial perceptions and Their Tolerance of ambiguity. Unpublished Master Thesis, Technion - Israel Institute of Technology.

Clapham, M. M. (2011). Testing/measurement/assessment. In M. A. Runco, & S. R. Pritzker (Eds.), Encyclopedia of creativity (2nd ed., pp. 458-464). London: Elsevier Inc.

Couger, J. D. (1996). Press: Measurement of the climate for creativity in IS organizations. Creativity and Innovation Management, 5, 273-279.

Cropley, A. (2006). In praise of convergent thinking. Creativity Research Journal, 18, 391-404.

Danneels, E. (2002). The dynamics of product innovation and firm competences. Strategic Management Journal, 23, 1095-1121.

Day, D. V. (2000). Leadership development: A review in context. The Leadership Quarterly, 11, 581-613.

Dollinger, M. J., & Saxton, T. (1995). Intolerance of ambiguity and the decision to form an alliance. Psychological Reports, 77, 1197-1198.

Drazin, R., Glynn, M. A., & Kazanjian, R. K. (1999). Multilevel theorizing about creativity in organizations: A sensemaking perspective. Academy of Management Review, 24, 286-307.

Droge, C., Calantone, R., & Harmancioglu, N. (2008). New product success: Is it really controllable by managers in highly turbulent environments? Journal of Product Innovation Management, 25, 272-286.

Egbu, C. O. (1999). Skills, knowledge and competencies for managing construction refurbishment works. Construction Management & Economics, 17, 29-43.

Eisenhardt, K. M., & Schoonhoven, C. B. (1996). Resource-based view of strategic alliance formation: Strategic and social effects in entrepreneurial firms. Organization Science, 7, 136-150.

Ekvall, G. I., & Ryhammar, L. (1998). Leadership style, social climate and organizational outcomes: A study of a Swedish university college. Creativity and Innovation Management, 7, 126-130.

Ekvall, G. (1987). The climate metaphor in organization theory. In B. M. Bass, P. J. D. Drenth & P. Weissenberg (Eds.), Advances in organizational psychology (pp. 177-190). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc.

Ekvall, G., & Ryhammar, L. (1999). The creative climate: Its determinants and effects at a Swedish university. Creativity Research Journal, 12, 303-310.

Eysenck, H. J. (1997). Creativity and personality. In M. A. Runco (Ed.), Creativity research handbook (pp. 41-66). Cresskill: Hampton Press.

Feist, G. J. (1998). A meta-analysis of personality in scientific and artistic creativity. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 2, 290-309.

Gardner, H. (1995). Leading minds: An anatomy of leadership. New York, NY US: Basic Books.

George, J. M. (2000). Emotions and leadership: The role of emotional intelligence. Human Relations, 53, 1027-1055.

George, J. M. (2008). Creativity in organizations. In J. P. Walsh, & A. P. Brief (Eds.), The Academy of Management Annals (Vol. 1, pp. 439-477). New York, NY: Taylor & Francis Group/Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Gerstner, C. R., & Day, D. V. (1997). Meta-analytic review of leader–member exchange theory: Correlates and construct issues. Journal of Applied Psychology, 82, 827-844.

Gibson, C., & Mumford, M. D. (2013). Evaluation, criticism, and creativity: Criticism content and effects on creative problem solving. Psychology of Aesthetics, Creativity, and the Arts, 7, 314–331.

Gong, Y., Huang, J., & Farh, J. (2009). Employee learning orientation, transformational leadership, and employee creativity: The mediating role of employee creative self-efficacy. Academy of Management Journal, 52, 765-778.

Graen, G. B., & Uhl-Bien, M. (1991). Leadership-making applies equally well to sponsors, competence networks, and teammates. Journal of Management Systems, 3, 375-380.

Graen, G. B., & Uhl-Bien, M. (1995). Relationship-based approach to leadership: Development of leader-member exchange (LMX) theory of leadership over 25 years: Applying a multi-level multi-domain perspective. The Leadership Quarterly, 6, 219-247.

Grant, R. M. (1996). Toward a knowledge-based theory of the firm. Strategic Management Journal, 17(S2), 109-122.

Grant, R. M. (2003). Strategic planning in a turbulent environment: Evidence from the oil majors. Strategic Management Journal, 24, 491-517.

Grønhaug, K., & Haukedal, W. (1995). Experts and novices in innovative, unstructured tasks: The case of strategy formulation. Creativity and Innovation Management, 4, 4-13.

Guilford, J. P. (1963). Intellectual resources and their values as seen by scientists. In C. W. Taylor, & F. Barron (Eds.), Scientific creativity, its recognition and development (pp. 101-118). New York: Wiley.

Gumusluoglu, L., & Ilsev, A. (2009). Transformational leadership, creativity, and organizational innovation. Journal of Business Research, 62, 461-473.

Halpern, D. F. (2003). Thinking critically about creative thinking. In M. A. Runco (Ed.), Critical creative processes (pp. 189-207). Cresskill, NJ: Hampton Press.

Hansen, E., & Crespell, P. (2008). Work climate, innovativeness, and firm performance in the US forest sector: In search of a conceptual framework. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 38, 1703-1715.

Hennessey, B. A., & Amabile, T. M. (2010). Creativity. Annual Review of Psychology, 61, 569-598.

Hitt, M. A., Keats, B. W., Harback, H. F., & Nixon, R. D. (1994). Rightsizing: Building and maintaining strategic leadership and long-term competitiveness. Organizational Dynamics, 23, 18-32.

Hitt, M. A., Hoskisson, R. E., Johnson, R. A., & Moesel, D. D. (1996). The market for corporate control and firm innovation. Academy of Management Journal, 39, 1084-1119.

Hunter, S. T., Cassidy, S. D., & Ligon, G. S. (2011). Planning for innovation: A process oriented perspective. In M. D. Mumford (Ed.), Handbook of organizational creativity (pp. 515-545). Burlington: Elsevier Science.

Hunter, S. T., & Cushenbery, L. (2011). Leading for innovation: Direct and indirect influences. Advances in Developing Human Resources, 13, 248-265.

Isen, A. M., & Daubman, K. A. (1984). The influence of affect on categorization. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 47, 1206-1217.

Iyer, L. R., Doboli, S., Minai, A. A., Brown, V. R., Levine, D. S., & Paulus, P. B. (2009). Neural dynamics of idea generation and the effects of priming. Neural Networks, 22, 674-686.

Janssen, O., & Van Yperen, N. W. (2004). Employees’ goal orientations, the quality of leader-member exchange, and the outcomes of job performance and job satisfaction. Academy of Management Journal, 47, 368-384.

Judge, T. A., Bono, J. E., Ilies, R., & Gerhardt, M. W. (2002). Personality and leadership: A qualitative and quantitative review. Journal of Applied Psychology, 87, 765-780.

Judge, T. A., & Piccolo, R. F. (2004). Transformational and transactional leadership: A meta-analytic test of their relative validity. Journal of Applied Psychology, 89, 755-768.

Kahai, S. S., Sosik, J. J., & Avolio, B. J. (2003). Effects of leadership style, anonymity, and rewards on creativity-relevant processes and outcomes in an electronic meeting system context. The Leadership Quarterly, 14, 499-524.

Kajs, L. T., & McCollum, D. L. (2009). Examining tolerance for ambiguity in the domain of educational leadership. Academy of Entrepreneurship Journal, 15(2), 1-16.

Kajs, L. T., & McCollum, D. L. (2010). Dealing with ambiguity: Assessment of tolerance for ambiguity in the context of school leadership. Academy of Educational Leadership Journal, 14, 77-91.

Kaufman, J. C., Plucker, J. A., & Baer, J. (2008). Essentials of creativity assessment. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons Inc.

Kerr, R., Garvin, J., Heaton, N., & Boyle, E. (2006). Emotional intelligence and leadership effectiveness. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 27, 265-279.

Liden, R. C., Wayne, S. J., & Sparrowe, R. T. (2000). An examination of the mediating role of psychological empowerment on the relations between the job, interpersonal relationships, and work outcomes. Journal of Applied Psychology, 85, 407-416.

Lonergan, D. C., Scott, G. M., & Mumford, M. D. (2004). Evaluative aspects of creative thought: Effects of appraisal and revision standards. Creativity Research Journal, 16, 231-246.

Martinsen, Ø. (1995). Cognitive styles and experience in solving insight problems: Replication and extension. Creativity Research Journal, 8, 291-298.

Mathisen, G. E., & Einarsen, S. (2004). A review of instruments assessing creative and innovative environments within organizations. Creativity Research Journal, 16, 119-140.

Mathisen, G. E., Einarsen, S., Jørstad, K., & Brønnick, K. S. (2004). Climate for work group creativity and innovation: Norwegian validation of the team climate inventory (TCI). Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 45, 383-392.

McCauley, C. D., Moxley, R. S., & Van Velsor, E. (1998). The center for creative leadership handbook of leadership development. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

McCrae, R. R. (1987). Creativity, divergent thinking, and openness to experience. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 52, 1258-1265.

McCrae, R. R., & John, O. P. (1992). An introduction to the five-factor model and its applications. Journal of Personality, 60, 175-215.

Mischel, W., & Shoda, Y. (1995). A cognitive-affective system theory of personality: Re-conceptualizing situations, dispositions. Psychological Review, 102, 246-268.

Mumford, M. D., Connelly, S., & Gaddis, B. (2003). How creative leaders think: Experimental findings and cases. The Leadership Quarterly, 14, 411-432.

Mumford, M. D., Scott, G. M., Gaddis, B., & Strange, J. M. (2002). Leading creative people: Orchestrating expertise and relationships. The Leadership Quarterly, 13, 705-750.

Mumford, M. D., Zaccaro, S. J., Harding, F. D., Jacobs, O. T., & Fleishman, E. A. (2000). Leadership skills for a changing world: Solving complex social problems. The Leadership Quarterly, 11, 11-35.

Mumford, M. D., & Connelly, M. S. (1991). Leaders as creators: Leader performance and problem solving in ill-defined domains. The Leadership Quarterly, 2, 289-315.

Mumford, M. D., & Gustafson, S. B. (1988). Creativity syndrome: Integration, application, and innovation. Psychological Bulletin, 103, 27-43.

Mumford, M. D., Hunter, S. T., Eubanks, D. L., Bedell, K. E., & Murphy, S. T. (2007). Developing leaders for creative efforts: A domain-based approach to leadership development. Human Resource Management Review, 17, 402-417.

Mumford, M. D., Marks, M. A., Connelly, M. S., Zaccaro, S. J., & Johnson, J. F. (1998). Domain-based scoring of divergent-thinking tests: Validation evidence in an occupational sample. Creativity Research Journal, 11, 151-163.

Murray, N., Sujan, H., Hirt, E. R., & Sujan, M. (1990). The influence of mood on categorization: A cognitive flexibility interpretation. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 59, 411-425.

Norton, R. W. (1975). Measurement of ambiguity tolerance. Journal of Personality Assessment, 39, 607-619.

Oldham, G. R., & Cummings, A. (1996). Employee creativity: Personal and contextual factors at work. Academy of Management Journal, 39, 607-634.

Pan, W., Sun, L., & Chow, I. H. S. (2012). Leader-member exchange and employee creativity: Test of a multilevel moderated mediation model. Human Performance, 25, 432-451.

Petrides, K. V., Pita, R., & Kokkinaki, F. (2007). The location of trait emotional intelligence in personality factor space. British Journal of Psychology, 98, 273-289.

Pirola-Merlo, A., & Mann, L. (2004). The relationship between individual creativity and team creativity: Aggregating across people and time. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 25, 235-257.

Politis, J. D. (2004). Transformational and transactional leadership predictors of the ‘stimulant’determinants to creativity in organisational work environments. Electronic Journal of Knowledge Management, 2(2), 23-34.

Powell, W. W., Koput, K. W., & Smith-Doerr, L. (1996). Interorganizational collaboration and the locus of innovation: Networks of learning in biotechnology. Administrative Science Quarterly, 41, 116-145.

Puccio, G. J., Mance, M., & Murdock, M. C. (2011). Creative leadership: Skills that drive change. Thousand Oaks: SAGE.

Rego, A., Sousa, F., Pina, e. C., Correia, A., & Saur-Amaral, I. (2007). Leader self-reported emotional intelligence and perceived employee creativity: An exploratory study. Creativity and Innovation Management, 16, 250-264.

Reiter-Palmon, R. (2004). Leadership and creativity: Understanding leadership from a creative problem-solving perspective. The Leadership Quarterly, 15, 55-77.

Rickards, T., & Moger, S. (2006). Creative leaders: A decade of contributions from creativity and innovation management journal. Creativity and Innovation Management, 15, 4-18.

Rosete, D., & Ciarrochi, J. (2005). Emotional intelligence and its relationship to workplace performance outcomes of leadership effectiveness. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 26, 388-399.

Runco, M. A., & Chand, I. (1994). Problem finding, evaluative thinking, and creativity. In M. A. Runco (Ed.), Problem finding, problem solving, and creativity (pp. 40-76). Westport, CT US: Ablex Publishing.

Scratchley, L. S., & Hakstian, A. R. (2001). The measurement and prediction of managerial creativity. Creativity Research Journal, 13, 367-384.

Shalley, C. E., & Gilson, L. L. (2004). What leaders need to know: A review of social and contextual factors that can foster or hinder creativity. The Leadership Quarterly, 15, 33-53.

Shin, S. J., & Zhou, J. (2007). When is educational specialization heterogeneity related to creativity in research and development teams? Transformational leadership as a moderator. Journal of Applied Psychology, 92, 1709-1721.

Shin, S. J., & Zhou, J. (2003). Transformational leadership, conservation, and creativity: Evidence from Korea. Academy of Management Journal, 46, 703-714.

Soldz, S., & Vaillant, G. E. (1999). The big five personality traits and the life course: A 45-year longitudinal study. Journal of Research in Personality, 33, 208-232.

Song, M., Im, S., van der Bij, H., & Song, L. Z. (2011). Does strategic planning enhance or impede innovation and firm performance? Journal of Product Innovation Management, 28, 503-520.

Sosik, J. J., Kahai, S. S., & Avolio, B. J. (1998). Transformational leadership and dimensions of creativity: Motivating idea generation in computer-mediated groups. Creativity Research Journal, 11, 111-121.

Stein, M. K., & Nelson, B. S. (2003). Leadership content knowledge. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 25, 423-448.

Sternberg, R. J. (1988). A three-facet model of creativity. In R. J. Sternberg (Ed.), The Nature of Creativity (pp. 125-147). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.

Sternberg, R. J. (2002). Creativity as a decision. American Psychologist, 57, 376-376.

Sternberg, R. J., Kaufman, J. C., & Pretz, J. E. (2004). A propulsion model of creative leadership. Creativity and Innovation Management, 13, 145-153.

Stuart, T. E. (2000). Interorganizational alliances and the performance of firms: A study of growth and innovation. Strategic Management Journal, 21, 791-811.

Teece, D. J., Pisano, G., & Shuen, A. (1997). Dynamic capabilities and strategic management. Strategic Management Journal, 18, 509-533.

Tegano, D. W. (1990). Relationship of tolerance of ambiguity and playfulness to creativity. Psychological Reports, 66, 1047-1056.

Teoh, H. Y., & Foo, S. L. (1997). Moderating effects of tolerance for ambiguity and risktaking propensity on the role conflict-perceived performance relationship: Evidence from Singaporean entrepreneurs. Journal of Business Venturing, 12, 67-81.

Tierney, P., Farmer, S. M., & Graen, G. B. (1999). An examination of leadership and employee creativity: The relevance of traits and relationships. Personnel Psychology, 52, 591-620.

Tsai, W., & Ghoshal, S. (1998). Social capital and value creation: The role of intrafirm networks. Academy of Management Journal, 41, 464-476.

Vincent, A. S., Decker, B. P., & Mumford, M. D. (2002). Divergent thinking, intelligence, and expertise: A test of alternative models. Creativity Research Journal, 14, 163-178.

Wakefield, J. F. (2003). The development of creative thinking and critical reflection: Lessons from everyday problem finding. In M. A. Runco (Ed.), Critical creative process (pp. 253-272). Cresskill, NJ: Hampton Press.

Wang, P., & Rode, J. C. (2010). Transformational leadership and follower creativity: The moderating effects of identification with leader and organizational climate. Human Relations, 63, 1105-1128.

Weick, K. E. (1995). Sensemaking Organizations. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Weisberg, R. W. (1999). Creativity and knowledge: A challenge to theories. In R. J. Sternberg (Ed.), Handbook of creativity (pp. 226-250). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Williams, F., & Foti, R. J. (2011). Formally developing creative leadership as a driver of organizational innovation. Advances in Developing Human Resources, 13, 279-296.

Williams, R. B. (2006). Leadership for school reform: Do principal decision-making styles reflect a collaborative approach? Canadian Journal of Educational Administration and Policy, 53, 1-22.

Wong, C., & Law, K. S. (2002). The effects of leader and follower emotional intelligence on performance and attitude: An exploratory study. The Leadership Quarterly, 13, 243-274.

Yukl, G. (1999). An evaluation of conceptual weaknesses in transformational and charismatic leadership theories. The Leadership Quarterly, 10, 285-305.

Zaccaro, S. J., Mumford, M. D., Connelly, M. S., Marks, M. A., & Gilbert, J. A. (2000). Assessment of leader problem-solving capabilities. The Leadership Quarterly, 11, 37-64.

Zenasni, F., Besancon, M., & Lubart, T. (2008). Creativity and tolerance of ambiguity: An empirical study. Journal of Creative Behavior, 42, 61-73.

Zhang, X., & Bartol, K. M. (2010). Linking empowering leadership and employee creativity: The influence of psychological empowerment, intrinsic motivation, and creative process engagement. Academy of Management Journal, 53, 107-128.

Zhao, H., & Seibert, S. E. (2006). The big five personality dimensions and entrepreneurial status: A meta-analytical review. Journal of Applied Psychology, 91, 259-271.

Zhou, J., & George, J. M. (2003). Awakening employee creativity: The role of leader emotional intelligence. The Leadership Quarterly, 14, 545-568.

Journal Information

Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 1045 1045 163
PDF Downloads 551 551 104