Hydrogeochemical Characterization and Vulnerability Assessment of Shallow Groundwater in Basement Complex Area, Southwest Nigeria

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Thirty-five (35) groundwater samples from Owo area were analyzed for physicochemical parameters. Results show that the mean value of pH is 6.32, TDS is 208.92 mg/l, temperature is 28.77°C, EC is 545.16 μs/cm; TH is 111.09 mg/l, SO4 is 71.73 mg/l, Cl is 0.07 mg/l, HCO3 is 14.09 mg/l, Na is 25.06 mg/l, Ca is 37.07 mg/l, K is 24.36 mg/l and Mg is 4.41 mg/l. The results were compared to the WHO and NDSQW standards. All parameters were within the permissible limit except EC in well OW6 and K is above the stipulated standards in 69% of the total samples. The high concentration of K is linked to the use of NPK fertilizer in the area for agricultural purposes. The groundwater belongs to Ca-Na-K-SO4 and Na-Ca-SO4 water type respectively. The ionic concentration in the groundwater is due to the dissolution of the rock that makes up the aquifer. Plagioclase and silicate-bearing rocks are the sources of major ions in the water. SAR, PI, RSBC and KR reveals that groundwater in the area is good for irrigation purpose. DRASTIC model further revealed that groundwater in the area is less vulnerable to contamination under the current environmental conditions.

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