Influence of Transition Metals on Animal and Human Health: A Review

Open access


Niobium, osmium, scandium, tungsten and vanadium are transition metals naturally occuring in the environment, particularly in the Earth’s crust. Anthropogenic activities, primarily industrial technologies, have precipitated significant alternations in the concentration and distribution of these metals. Such a dramatic change resulted, by all means, in the bigger potential of the environmental exposure, which poses a threat not only to humans but to all biological systems. Certain elements naturally occur in the animal and human plasma and tissues, but their concentrations are sometimes too low to be detected using the existing modern technologies. In small amounts, such elements are not harmful and some of them have even been suggested to have a beneficial role in the human or animal physiology. However, exposure to excessive antropogenically elevated levels can exert serious negative effects on the environment, agriculture and health. The findings summarized in this paper provide a review of the current knowledge about the implications of the transition metals considered on the health, accentuating the insufficiency and need for more relevant data.

ANDERSON, G.J., WANG, F.: Essential but toxic: controlling the flux of iron in the body. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol., 39(8)719-724, 2012.

AYANDA, O.S., ADEKOLA, F.A.: A Review of Niobium-Tantalum Separation in Hydrometallurgy. Journal of Minerals & Materials Characterization & Engineering, 10(3)245-256, 2011.

BACHTHALER, M., LENHART, M., PAETZEL, C., FEUERBACH, S., LINK, J., MANKE, C.: Corrosion of tungsten coils after peripheral vascular embolization therapy: influence on outcome and tungsten load. Catheter Cardiovasc Interv., 62(3)380– 384, 2004.

BARCELOUX, D.G., BARCELOUX, D.: Vanadium. J Toxicol Clin Toxicol., 37:265–278, 1999.

BARTH, A., SCHAFFER, A.W., KONNARIS, C., BLAUENSTEINER, R., WINKER, R., OSTERODE, W., RÜDIGER, H.W.: Neurobehavioral effects of vanadium. J Toxicol Environ Health A., 65(9)677-683, 2002.

BERNOT, K., BOGANI, L., CANESCHI, A., GATTESCHI, D., SESSOLI, R.: A family of rare-earth-based single chain magnets: playing with anisotropy. J Am Chem Soc., 128(24)7947–7956, 2006.

BOLT, A.M., MANN, K.K.: Tungsten: an Emerging Toxicant, Alone or in Combination. Curr Environ Health Rep., 3(4)405-415, 2016.

BOLT, A.M., SABOURIN, V., MOLINA, M.F., POLICE, A.M., NEGRO SILVA, L.F., PLOURDE, D., LEMAIRE, M., URSINI-SIEGEL, J., MANN, K.K.: Tungsten targets the tumor microenvironment to enhance breast cancer metastasis. Toxicol Sci., 143(1)165-177, 2015.

BOLT, A.M., GRANT, M.P., WU, T. H., FLORES MOLINA, M., PLOURDE, D., KELLY, A.D., NEGRO SILVA, L.F., LEMAIRE, M., SCHLEZINGER, J.J., MWALE, F., MANN, K.K.: Tungsten Promotes Sex-Specific Adipogenesis in the Bone by Altering Differentiation of Bone Marrow-Resident Mesenchymal Stromal Cells. Toxicol Sci., 150(2)333-346, 2016.

BOULASSEL, B., SADEG, N., ROUSSEL, O., PERRIN, M., BELHADJ-TAHAR, H.: Fatal poisoning by vanadium. Forensic Sci Int., 206(1-3)e79-81, 2011.

BROWN, P.H., RATHJEN, A.H., GRAHAM, R.D., TRIBE, D.E.: Rare earth elements in biological systems. In: Handbook on the Physics and Chemistry of Rare Earths (K. A. Gschneidner and L. Eyring, eds.). North-Holland, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, pp.423–452, 1990.

BRUNOT, F.R.: The toxicity of osmium tetroxide (osmic acid). J Indust Hyg., 15:136-143, 1933.

BUTLER, T.J., JACKSON, R.W., ROBSON, J.Y., OWEN, R.J., DELVES, H.T., SIENIAWSKA, C.E., ROSE, J.D.: In vivo degradation of tungsten embolisation coils. Br J Radiol., 73(870)601–603, 2000.

CARDIN, C.A., MASON, J.: Molybdate and tungstate transfer by rat ileum competitive inhibition by sulphate. Biochim Biophys Acta, 455(3):937-946, 1976.

CHEN, C., SEDWICK, P.N., SHARMA, M.: Anthropogenic osmium in rain and snow reveals global-scale atmospheric contamination. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 106(19)7724-7728, 2009.

CLANCY, H.A., SUN, H., PASSANTINO, L., KLUZ, T., MUÑOZ, A., ZAVADIL, J., COSTA, M.: Gene expression changes in human lung cells exposed to arsenic, chromium, nickel or vanadium indicate the first steps in cancer. Metallomics, 4(8)784-93, 2012.

CUI, W., CUI, H., PENG, X., ZUO, Z., LIU, X., WU, B.: Effect of vanadium on the subset and proliferation of peripheral blood T-cell, and serum IL-2 content in Broilers. Biol Trace Elem Res., 141(1-3)192–199, 2011.

CZARNEK, K., TERPIŁOWSKA, S., SIWICKI, A.K.: Selected aspects of the action of cobalt ions in the human body. Cent Eur J Immunol., 40(2)236-242, 2015.

DOMINGO, J.L.: Vanadium: a review of the reproductive and developmental toxicity. Reprod. Toxicol., 10(3)175-82, 1996. FLESHMAN, D., KROKZ, S., SILVA, A.: The metabolism of elements of high atomic number. University of California Radiation Laboratory, 14739:69-86, 1966.

FORD-HUTCHINSON, A.W., PERKINS, D.J.: The binding of scandium ions to transferrin invivo and invitro, European Journal of Biochemistry, 21(1)55–59,1971.

FORGACS, Z., MASSÁNYI, P., LUKAC, N., SOMOSY, Z.: Reproductive toxicology of nickel - review. J Environ Sci Health A Tox Hazard Subst Environ Eng., 47(9)1249-1260, 2012.

FRANK, A., MADEJ, A., GALGAN, V., PETERSSON, L.R.: Vanadium poisoning of cattle with basic slag. Concentrations in tissues from poisoned animals and from a reference, slaughterhouse material. Sci Total Environ., 181(1)73-92, 1996.

FU, Y., HABTEMARIAM, A., PIZARRO, A.M., VAN RIJT, S.H., HEALEY, D.J., COOPER, P.A., SHNYDER, S.D., CLARKSON, G.J., SADLER, P.J.: Organometallic osmium arene complexes with potent cancer cell cytotoxicity. J Med Chem., 53(22)8192-8196, 2010.

GEBHART, E., ROSSMAN, T.G.: Mutagenicity, carcinogenicity, teratogenicity, in Metals and Their Compounds in the Environment, E. Merian, Ed., pp.617–640, VCH, Weinheim, Germany, 1991.

GILLESPIE, A.M.: Manual of spectrofluorometric and spectrophotometric derivative experiments. Spith edn. CRC, Boca Raton, FL, 1999.

GRANT, W.M. Toxicology of the Eye. (Charles C. Thomas, ed.). Springfield, IL, pp.769, 1974.

GRUZEWSKA, K, MICHNO, A., PAWELCZYK, T., BIELARCZYK, H.: Essentiality and toxicity of vanadium supplements in health and pathology. J Physiol Pharmacol., 65(5)603-611, 2014.

HAENLEIN, G., ANKE, M.: Mineral and trace element research in goats. A review. Small Rum. Res., 95:2–19, 2011.

HAMILTON, A., HARDY, H.: Osmium. In: Industrial Toxicology, pp.155-156. Publishing Science Group, Action, MA, 1974.

HALLAB, N.J., ANDERSON, S., CAICEDO, M., JACOBS, J.J.: Zirconium and niobium affect human osteoblasts, fibroblasts, and lymphocytes in a similar manner to more traditional implant alloy metals. J ASTM Int., 3:429–440, 2006.

HANIF, M., BABAK, M.V., HARTINGER, C.G.: Development of anticancer agents: wizardry with osmium. Drug Discov Today., 19(10)1640-1648, 2014.

HANSARD, S.I.: Toxicity and Physiological Movement of Vanadium in the Sheep and Rat. Ph. D. Dissertation. Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, 1975.

HAYES, A.W.: Principles and Methods of Toxicology, pp.2296, CRC Press, Boca Raton, 2008.

HEIDARIA, S.R., GANJKHANLOUA, M., ZALIA, A., GHORBANIB, G.R., DEHGHAN-BANADAKYA, M., HAYIRLI, A.: Effects of vanadium supplementation on performance and metabolic parameters in periparturient dairy cows. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 216:138-145, 2016.

HILLE, R.: Molybdenum and tungsten in biology. Trends Biochem Sci., 27(7)360–367, 2002.

HOROVITZ, C.T. Biochemistry of scandium and yttrium, part 2: biochemistry and applications, in Biochemistry and Physiology of Scandium and Yttrium, pp. 39–163, Springer, New York, NY, USA, 2000.

JAISHANKAR, M., TSETEN, T., ANBALAGAN, N., MATHEW, B.B., BEEREGOWDA, K.N.: Toxicity, mechanism and health effects of some heavy metals. Interdiscip Toxicol., 7(2)60-72, 2014.

JIANG, P., DONG, Z., MA, B., NI, Z., DUAN, H., LI, X., WANG, B., MA, X., WEI, Q., JI, X., LI, M.: Effect of Vanadyl Rosiglitazone, a New Insulin-Mimetic Vanadium Complexes, on Glucose Homeostasis of Diabetic Mice. Appl. Biochem. Biotechnol., 180(5)841-851 2016.

JORDAN, C.M., WHITMAN, R.D., HARBUT, M., TANNER, B.: Neuropsychological sequelae of hard metal disease. Arch Clin Neuropsychol., 8(4)309–326, 1993.

JULIÃO, L.M., MELO, D.R., SOUSA, W.O., SANTOS, M.S., FERNANDES, P.C., GODOY, M.L.: Exposure of workers in a mineral processing industry in Brazil. Radiat Prot Dosimetry., 125(1-4)513-515, 2007.

JUNG, K.H., TORRONE, D., LOVINSKY-DESIR, S., PERZANOWSKI, M., BAUTISTA, J., JEZIORO, J.R., HOEPNER, L., ROSS, J., PERERA, F.P., CHILLRUD, S.N., MILLER, R.L.: Short-term exposure to PM2.5 and vanadium and changes in asthma gene DNA methylation and lung function decrements among urban children. Respir. Res., 18(1)63, 2017.

KELLY, A.D., LEMAIRE, M., YOUNG, Y.K., EUSTACHE, J.H., GUILBERT, C., MOLINA, M.F., MANN, K.K.: In vivo tungsten exposure alters B-cell development and increases DNA damage in murine bonemarrow. Toxicol Sci., 131(2)434-446, 2013.

KITAMURA, Y., USUDA, K., SHIMIZU, H., FUJIMOTO, K., KONO, R., FUJITA, A., KONO, K.: Urinary monitoring of exposure to yttrium, scandium, and europium in male Wistar rats. Biol Trace Elem Res., 150(1-3)322-327, 2012.

KLETZIN, A., ADAMS, M.W.: Tungsten in biological systems. FEMS Microbiol Rev., 18(1)5–63, 1996.

KNAZICKA, Z., LUKAC, N., FORGACS, Z., TVRDA, E., LUKACOVA, J., SLIVKOVA, J., BINKOWSKI, L., MASSANYI, P.: Effects of mercury on the steroidogenesis of human adrenocarcinoma (NCI-H295R) cell line. J Environ Sci Health A Tox Hazard Subst Environ Eng., 48(3)348-353, 2013.

KNAZICKA, Z., FORGACS, Z., LUKACOVA, J., ROYCHOUDHURY, S., MASSANYI, P., LUKAC, N.: Endocrine disruptive effects of cadmium on steroidogenesis: human adrenocortical carcinoma cell line NCI-H295R as a cellular model for reproductive toxicity testing. J Environ Sci Health A Tox Hazard Subst Environ Eng., 50(4)348-356, 2015.

KONG, K.V., LEONG, W.K., LIM, L.H.: Osmium carbonyl clusters containing labile ligands hyperstabilize microtubules. Chem. Res. Toxicol., 22:1116–1122, 2009.

KORBECKI, J., BARANOWSKA-BOSIACKA, I., GUTOWSKA, I., CHLUBEK, D.: Biochemical and medical importance of vanadium compounds. Acta Biochim Pol, 59:195-200, 2012.

KROČKOVÁ, J.Z., MASSÁNYI, P., SIROTKIN, A.V., PIVKO, J., MAKAREVICH, A.V., LUKÁČ, N., CAPCAROVÁ, M., TOMAN, R., POLÁKOVÁ, Z.: Nickel induced structural and functional alterations in mouse Leydig cells in vitro. J Trace Elem Med Biol. 25(1)14-18, 2011.

L’VOV, N.P., NOSIKOV, A.N., ANTIPOV, A.N.: Tungsten-containing enzymes. Biochemistry (Mosc), 67(2)196–200, 2002. LAGARDE, F., LEROY, M.: Metabolism and toxicity of tungsten in humans and animals. Met Ions Biol Syst., 39:741–759, 2002.

LASSNER, E., SCHUBERT, W.D.: Tungsten: Properties, Chemistry, Technology of the Element, Alloys and Chemical Compounds. New York, Plenum Publishers, 1999.

LAULICHT, F., BROCATO, J., CARTULARO, L., VAUGHAN, J., WU, F., KLUZ, T., SUN, H., OKSUZ, B.A., SHEN, S., PEANA, M., MEDICI, S., ZORODDU, M.A., COSTA, M.: Tungsten-induced carcinogenesis in human bronchial epithelial cells. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol., 288(1)33-39, 2015.

LEGGETT, R.W.: A model of the distribution and retention of tungsten in the human body. Sci Total Environ., 206(2-3)147–165, 1997.

LIU, Z., LEI, Z., WEI, X., XUE, B.: The effects of exposure to rare earth (NO3)3 on the immune function of mice off spring via milk. Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi., 36(6)394–397, 2002.

LIU, J., CUI, H., LIU, X., PENG, X., DENG, J., ZUO, Z., CUI, W., DENG, Y., WANG, K.: Dietary high vanadium causes oxidative damage-induced renal and hepatic toxicity in broilers. Biol Trace Elem Res., 145(2)189-200, 2012.

LUTTRELL, W.E., GILES, C.B.: Toxic tips: osmium tetroxide. J Chem Health Saf., 14(5)40-41, 2007.

MAILLET, A., YADAV, S., LOO, Y.L., SACHAPHIBULKIJ, K., PERVAIZ, S.: A novel Osmium-based compound targets the mitochondria and triggers ROS-dependent apoptosis in colon carcinoma. Cell Death Dis., 4(6)e653, 2013.

MAKAROVSKY, I., MARKEL, G., HOFFMAN, A., SCHEIN, O., FINKELSTIEN, A., BROSH-NISSIMOV, T., TASHMA, Z., DUSHNITSKY, T., EISENKRAFT, A.: Osmium tetroxide: a new kind of weapon. Isr Med Assoc J., 9(10)750-752, 2007.

MARQUET, P., FRANCOIS, B., VIGNON, P., LACHATRE, G.A.: Soldier who had seizures after drinking quarter of a litre of wine. Lancet, 348:1070, 1996.

MARQUET, P., FRANCOIS, B., LOTFI, H., TURCANT, A., DEBORD, J., NEDELEC, G., LACHÂTRE, G.: Tungsten determination in biological fluids, hair and nails by plasma emission spectrometry in a case of severe acute intoxication in man. J Forensic Sci., 42(3)527–530, 1997.

MCLAUGHIN, A.I.G., MILTON, R., PERRY, K.M.A.: Toxic manifestiation of osmium tetroxide. Br J Indust Med., 3:183-186, 1964.

NI, W.X., MAN, W.L, CHEUNG, M.T, SUN, R.W, SHU, Y.L, LAM, Y.W, CHE, C.M, LAU, T.C.: Osmium(VI) complexes as a new class of potential anti-cancer agents. Chem. Commun., 47:2140–2142, 2011.

NEMERY, B., VERBEKEN, E.K., DEMEDTS, M.: Giant cell interstitial pneumonia (hard metal lung disease, cobalt lung). Semin Respir Crit Care Med., 22(4)435–448, 2001.

NIELSEN, F.H.: New essential trace elements for the life sciences. Biol Trace Elem Res., 26–27(1)599–611, 1990.

OKSENDAL, A.N., HALS, P.A.: Biodistribution and toxicity of MR imaging contrast media. J Magn Reson Imaging., 3(1)157-165, 1993.

OSTERBURG, A.R., ROBINSON, C.T., SCHWEMBERGER, S., MOKASHI, V., STOCKELMAN, M., BABCOCK, G.F.: Sodium tungstate (Na2WO4) exposure increases apoptosis in human peripheral blood lymphocytes. J Immunotoxicol., 7(3)174-182, 2010.

OTAG, A., HAZAR, M., OTAG, I., GÜRKAN, A.C., OKAN, I.: Responses of trace elements to aerobic maximal exercise in elite sportsmen. Glob J Health Sci., 6(3)90-96, 2014.

PANCHAL, S.K., WANYONYI, S., BROWN, L.: Selenium, Vanadium, and Chromium as Micronutrients to Improve Metabolic Syndrome Curr Hypertens Rep., 9(3)10, 2017.

PARKER, R.L., FLEISCHER, M.: Geochemistry of Niobium and Tantalum. United States Government Printing Office, Washington, 1968.

PENNEKAMP, P.H., GESSMANN, J., DIEDRICH, O., BURIAN, B., WIMMER, M.A., FRAUCHIGER, V.M., KRAFT, C.N.: Short-term microvascular response of striated muscle to cp-Ti, Ti-6Al-4V, and Ti-6Al-7Nb. J Orthop Res., 24(3)531-540, 2006.

RAJENDRAN, N., HU, S.C., SULLIVAN, D., MUZZIO, M., DETRISAC, C.J., VENEZIA, C.: Toxicologic evaluation of tungsten: 28-day inhalation study of tungsten blue oxide in rats. Inhal Toxicol., 24(14)985-994, 2012.

REHDER, D.: The role of vanadium in biology. Metallomics, 7(5)730-742, 2015.

REHDER, D.: Perspectives for vanadium in health issues. Future Med Chem., 8(3)325-338, 2016.

ROEDEL, E.Q., CAFASSO, D.E., LEE, K.W., PIERCE, L.M.: Pulmonary toxicity after exposure to military-relevant heavy metal tungsten alloy particles. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol., 259(1)74-86, 2012.

ROGERS, H.J., SYNGE, C., WOODS, V.E.: Antibacterial effect of scandium and indium complexes of enterochelin on Klebsiella pneumoniae. Antimicrob Agents Chemother., 18(1) 63-68, 1980.

ROGERS, S.D., HOWIE, D.W., GRAVES, S.E., PEARCY, M.J., HAYNES, D.R.: In vitro human monocyte response to wear particles of titanium alloy containing vanadium or niobium. J Bone Joint Surg Br., 79:311–315, 1997.

ROSOFF, B., SPENCER, H.: Binding of rare earths to serum proteins and DNA, Clinica Chimica Acta, 93(3)311–319, 1979.

RUDNICK, R.L., GAO, S.: Composition of the continental crust. In: Treatise on Geochemistry (Turekian, K.K., Holland, H.D., eds.). Elsevier, pp.1-64, 2003.

RYDZINSKI, K., PAKULSKA, D.: Vanadium, niobium and tantalum. In: Patty’s toxicology (E. Bingham, B. Cohrssen, F.A. Patty, eds.). John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, New Jersey, pp.511-565, 2012.

SÁNCHEZ-GONZÁLEZ, C., LÓPEZ-CHAVES, C., RIVAS-GARCÍA, L., GALINDO, P., GÓMEZ-ARACENA, J., ARANDA, P., LLOPIS, J. Accumulation of scandium in plasma in patients with chronic renal failure. Scientific World Journal., 2013:782745, 2013.

SEMLITSCH, M.F., WEBER, H., STREICHER, R.M., SCHÖN, R.: Joint replacement components made of hot-forged and surface treated Ti6Al7Nb alloy. Biomaterials, 13:781–788, 1992.

SMITH, I.C., CARSON, B.L., FERGUSON, T.L.: Osmium: An Appraisal of Environmental Exposure. Environmental Health Perspectives, 8:201-213, 1974.

SOTOGAKU, N., ENDO, K., HIRUNUMA, R., ENOMOTO, S., AMBE, S., AMBE, F.: Binding properties of various metals to blood components and serum proteins: a multitracer study. J Trace Elem Med Biol., 13(1-2)1–6, 1999.

STIEFEL, E.I.: The biogeochemistry of molybdenum and tungsten. Met Ions Biol Syst., 39:1–29, 2002.

SUTTLE, N.F.: Occasionally Beneficial Elements. Mineral Nutrition of Livestock. CABI International, Oxfordshire, UK, pp. 479–480, 2010.

SUN, L., WANG, K., L.I, Y., FAN, Q., ZHENG, W., LI, H.: Vanadium exposure-induced striatal learning and memory alterations in rats. Neurotoxicology, 62:124-129, 2017.

TANIDA, E., USUDA, K., KONO, K., KAWANO, A., TSUJI, H., IMANISHI, M., SUZUKI, S., OHNISHI, K., YAMAMOTO, K.: Urinary scandium as predictor of exposure: effects of scandium chloride hexahydrate on renal function in rats. Biol Trace Elem Res., 130(3)273-282, 2009.

TCHOUNWOU, P.B., YEDJOU, C.G., PATLOLLA, A.K., SUTTON, D.J.: Heavy metal toxicity and the environment. EXS., 101:133-164, 2012.

UTHUS, E.O., NIELSEN, F.H.: Effect of vanadium, iodine and their interaction on growth, Blood variables, liver trace elment and thyroid status indices in rats. Magnes Trace Elem., 9(4)219–226, 1990.

VAN DER VOET, G.B., TODOROV, T.I., CENTENO, J.A., JONAS, W., IVES, J., MULLICK, F.G.: Metals and Health: A Clinical Toxicological Perspective on Tungsten and Review of the Literature. Military Medicine, 172(9)1002–1005, 2007.

WANG, K., CUI, H., DENG, Y., PENG, X., ZUO, Z., FANG, J., DENG, J., CUI, W., WU, B.: Effect of dietary vanadium on intestinal microbiota in broiler. Biol Trace Elem Res., 149(2)212-218, 2012.

WANG, X., SUN, T., LIU, J., SHAN, Z., JIN, Y., CHEN, S., BAO, W., HU, F.B., LIU, L.: Inverse association of plasma vanadium levels with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes in a Chinese population. Am J Epidemiol., 180(4)378-384, 2014.

WANG, J.P., HE, K.R., DING, X.M., BAI, S.P., ZENG, Q.F., ZHANG, K.Y.: Effect of Feeding and Withdrawal of Vanadium and Vitamin C on Egg Quality and Vanadium Residual Over Time in Laying Hens. Biol Trace Elem Res., 177(2)367-375, 2017.

WAPPELHORST, O., KÜHN, I., HEIDENREICH, H., MARKERT, B.: Transfer of selected elements from food into human milk. Nutrition, 18(4)316-322, 2002.

WEDEPOHL, K.H.: The composition of the continental crust. Geochim Cosmochim Acta, 59(7)1217–1232, 1995.

WONG, L.C.K., DOWN, W.L.: Renal effects of potassium niobate. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, 9(3)561-570, 1966. ZAMBELLI, B., CIURLI, S.: Nickel and human health. Met Ions Life Sci., 13:321-357, 2013.

ZAMPELLA,G., FANTUCCI, P., PECORARO, V.L., DEGIOIA, L.: Insight i into the catalytic mechanism of vanadium haloperoxidases. DFT investigation of vanadium cofactor reactivity. Inorg Chem., 45:7133–7143, 2006.

ZHANG, C.: Essential functions of iron-requiring proteins in DNA replication, repair and cell cycle control. Protein Cell., 5(10)750-760, 2014.

ZHOU, F.Y., QIU, K.J., LI, H.F., HUANG, T., WANG, B.L., LI, L., ZHENG, Y.F.: Screening on binary Zr-1X (X = Ti, Nb, Mo, Cu, Au, Pd, Ag, Ru, Hf and Bi) alloys with good in vitro cytocompatibility and magnetic resonance imaging compatibility. Acta Biomater., 9(12)9578-9587, 2013.

ZHU, W., XU, S., SHAO, P., ZHANG, H., WU, D., YANG, W., FENG, J., FENG, L.: Investigation on liver function among population in high background of rare earth area in South China. Biol Trace Elem Res., 104(1)1–8, 2005.

Contemporary Agriculture

The Serbian Journal of Agricultural Sciences

Journal Information


All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 135 135 44
PDF Downloads 72 72 25