Morphometric variations between triploid and diploid Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822)

Open access


Several scientific methods have been described in the identification of triploid fish. However, many of these methods are not applicable for routine management purposes due to their complexity and cost. In this study, the possibility of using morphological variation as a least cost and less complex method of distinguishing triploid and diploid African catfish Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822) was examined. Triploid catfish were produced by cold shock of fertilized eggs in 5°C for 20 mins (at approximately 3 mins after fertilization). The fish were incubated, hatched and raised for 3 months. Ploidy levels of the fish were then ascertained by observing the erythrocyte shape. Triploid erythrocyte was ellipsoidal in shape while diploid was round. Morphological characterization was then carried out on 100 samples each of triploid and diploid African catfish. Although significant differences were observed in many parameters, the principal morphometric difference between triploid and diploid African catfish could not be clearly distinguished. It was therefore concluded that morphological characteristics is not ideal for discriminating triploids and diploids of African catfish. The used of erythrocyte characteristics still remains the cheapest and relatively effective method for triploid and diploid determination in African catfish.

Adebayo, O. T., Popoola, O. M. (2008): Comparative evaluation of efficacy and cost of synthetic and non-synthetic hormones for artificial breeding of African catfish (Clarias gariepinus Burchell, 1822). Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science 3, 1, 66-71.

Adewolu, M. A., Adeniji, C. A., Adejobi, A. B. (2008): Feed utilization, growth, and survival of Clarias gariepinus (Burchell 1822) fingerlings cultured under different photoperiods. Aquaculture, 283, 1, 64-67.

Agnew, D. J., (1988): Evidence for the existence of two populations of Irish Seacod (Gadus Morhua L.) From consideration of growth rate ICESCM/G: 65. Dermensal fish committee.19pp

Allen, S. K. J. (1983): Flow cytometry: assaying experimental polyploid fish and shellfish. Aquaculture 33: 317-328.

Allendorf, F. W. Phelps, S. R. (1988): Loss of genetic variation in hatchery stock of cutthroat trout. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 109: 537-543.

Anon, (2010): Meiosis and Sexual Life Cycles. Accessed on 31 May 2012.

Appelbaum, S., Kamler, E. (2000): Survival, growth, metabolism and behaviour of Clarias gariepinus (Burchell 1822) early stages under different light conditions. Aquacultural Engineering, 22, 4, 269-287.;

Avise, J. C. (1994): Molecular markers, natural history and evolution. New York, London: Chapman and Hall.

Beaumont, A. R., Kelly, K. S. (1989). Production and growth of triploid Mytilus edulis larvae. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 132: 69-84.

Benfey, T. J. (1999): The physiology and behavior of triploid fishes. Reviews in Fisheries Science 7: 39-67.

Cal, R. M., Vidal, S., Gomez, C., lvarez-Blazquez, B. A., Martínez, P., Piferrer, F., Hwang, G. I., Rahman, M.A., Maclean, N. (2006): Growth and gonadal development in diploid and triploid turbot (Scophthalmus maximus). Aquaculture 251: 99-108.

Child, A. R., Watkins, H. P. (1994): A simple method to identify triploid molluscan bivalves by the measurement of cell nucleus diameter. Aquaculture 125: 199-204.

Creech, S. (1992): A multivariate morphometric investigation of Atherina boyeri Risso. 1810 and A. presbyter cuvier 1829 (Teloostei: Atherinidae) morphometric evidence in support of the two species. J. Fish boil. 41, 341-353.

Dorafshan, S. M., Kalbassi M. R., Pourkazemi, M., Amiri M. B., Karimi S. S. (2008): Effect of triploidy on the Caspian salmon, Salmo trutta caspius haematology. Fish Physiology and Biochemistry 34, 3, 195-200.

Downing, S. L. (1989): Estimating polyploid percentages using oyster larvae: a valuable hatchery management and research tool. Journal of Shellfish Research 8, 1, 320.

Elliott N. G., Haskard, K., Koslow, J. A. (1995): Morphometric analysis of orange roughy (Hoplostethus atlanticus) off the continental slope of southern Australia. J. Fish. Biol. 46: 202-220.

Fagbenro, O. A., Adedire, C. O., Owoseeni, E. A., Ayotunde, E. O. (1993): Studies on the biology and aquaculture potential of Feral Catfish Heterobanchus bidorsalis. Tropical zoology 6: 67-69.

Felip, A., Zanuy, S., Carillo, M., Martinez, G., Ramos, J., Piferrer, F. (1997): Optimal condition for induction of triploidy in the sea bass. Aquaculture 152: 287-298.

Felip, A., Zanuy, S., Carrillo, M., Piferrer, F. (1999): Growth and gonadal development in triploid sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.) during the first two years of age. Aquaculture 173: 389-399.

Felip, A., Zanuy, S., Carrillo, M., Piferrer, F. (2001): Induction of triploidy and gynogenesis in teleost fish with emphasis on marine species. Genetica 111: 175-195.

Flajšhans, M., (1997): A model approach to distinguish diploid and triploid fish by means of computer-assisted image analysis. Acta Vet. Brno, 66: 101-110.

Gao, Z., Wang, W., Abbas, K., Zhou, X., Yang, Y., Diana, J. S., Wang, H., Li, Y., Sun, Y., (2007): Haematological characterization of loach Misgurnus anguillicaudatus: comparison among diploid, triploid and tetraploid specimens. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. A: Mol. Integr. Physiol., 147, 4, 1001-1008

Gheyas, A. A., Mollah, M. F. A., Hussain, M. G. (2001): Triploidy induction in Stinging catfish Heteropneustes fossilis using cold shock. Asian Fisheries Science 14: 323-332.

Hammed, A. M., Fashina-Bombata, H. A., Osinaike, A. O. (2010): The use of cold shock in inducing triploidy in African mud catfish. African Journal of Biotechnology 9, 12, 1844-1847.

Henken, A. M., Brunink, A. M., Richter, C. J. J. (1987): Differences in growth Rate and feed utilization between diploid and triploid African catfish. Aquaculture 63: 233-242.

Hockaday S., Beddow, T.A., Stone, M., Hancock, P., Ross, L.G. (2000): Using truss networks to estimate the biomass of Oreochromis niloticus and to investigate shape characters. J. Fish Biol. 57, 981-1000.

Jolicoeur, P., Mosimann, J. E. (1960): Size and shape variation in the painted turtle. A principal component analysis. Growth 24: 339-354.

Kaiser, H. (1961): A Note on Guttman’s lower bound for the number of common factor. Multivariate Behavioral Research 1: 249-276.

Karami, A., Christianus, A., Ishak, Z., Courtenay, S. C., Syed, M. A., Noor Azlina, M Noorshinah, H. (2010): Effect of triploidization on juvenile African catfish. Aquaculture International 18: 851-858.

Komaru, A., Uchimura, Y., Ieyama, H., Wada, K.T. (1988): Detection of induced triploid scallop, Chlamys nobilis, by DNA microfluorometry with DAPi staining. Aquaculture 69: 201-209.

Mamuris, Z., Apostolidis A.P., Panagiotaki P., Theodorou, A.J. and Triantaphllidis, C. (1998): Morphological variation between red mullet populations in Greece. J. Fish Biol. 52, 107-117.

Manickam, P. (1991): Triploidy induced by cold shock in the Asian catfish, Clarias batrachus (L.). Aquaculture 94: 377-379.

Marques, J. F., Cabral, H. N., Busi, M., D’Amelio, S. (2006): Molecular identification of Anisakis species from Pleuronectiformes of the Portugeses coast. Journal of Helminthology 80:47-51.

Masser, M., Dunham, R. (1998): Production of hybrid catfish. Southern Regional Aquaculture Center 190: 1-5.

Na-Nakorn, U., Sidthikraiwong P., Tarnchalanukit W., Roberts T.R., (1993): Chromosome study of hybrid and gynogenetic offspring of artificial crosses between members of the catfish families Clariidae and Pangasiidae

Normala, J., Mohd A. A., Abol M. A. B., Nur A. A., Khor W., Shahreza M. S. (2016): It Is All In The Blood: Erythrocyte Characterization of Triploid and Diploid African Catfish, Clarias gariepinus. Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic sciences. 11, 6, 425-431.

Olufeagba S.O., Aladele, S.E., Okomoda V.T., Okere A.U., Oduoye, O.T., Hassan T. (2015): Morphological Variations of Cultured and wild Oreochromis niloticus from Ibadan and Kainji in Nigeria. Nigerian Journal of Fisheries 12, 1, 828-836.

Peruzzi, S., Varsamosa, S., Chataina, B., Fauvela, C., Menua, B., Falguierea, J. C., Severed, A., Gert, F. (2005). Haematological and physiological characteristics of diploid and triploid sea bass. Aquaculture 244: 359-367.

Piferrer, F., Cal R. M., Alvarez-Blazquez, B., Sanchez, L., Martinez, P. (2000): Induction of triploidy in the turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) I. Ploidy determination and the effects of cold shocks. Aquaculture 188: 79-90.

Pradeep, P. J., Srijaya, T. C., Jose, D., Papini, A., Hassan, A., Chatterji, A. K. (2011): Identification of diploid and triploid red tilapia using erythrocyte indices. Caryologia, 64, 4, 485-492.

Purdom, C. E. (1972): Induced polyploidy in plaice (Pleuronectes platessa) and its hybrid with the flounder (Platichthys flesus). Heredity London 29: 11-24.

Richter, C. J. J., Henken, A. M., Eding, E. H., Van-Doesum, J. H., De Boer, P. (1987): Induction of triploidy by coldshocking eggs and performance of triploids of the African catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822). In Selection, Hybridization and Genetic Engineering in Aquaculture. Proceedings of the World Symposium on Selection Hybridization and Genetic Engineering in Aquaculture, ed. K. Tiews, pp 225-337. Berlin, Germany: Schriften der Bundesforschungsantalt für Fischerei.

Rothwell, N. V. (1993). Understanding Genetics: A Molecular Approach. New York: Wiley-Liss.

Silva, A. (2003): Morphometric variation among sardine (Sardina pilchardus) populations from the Northeastern Atlantic and the Western Mediterranean. Journal of Marine Science 60: 1352-1360.

Siraj, S. S., Daud, S. K. Ki, J. G. (1993): Growth performance and gonad development in diploid and triploid Clarias batrachus (Linnaeus). Pertanika Journal Trapica Agriculture Science 16, 3, 167-171.

Soares, A. G., Scapini, F., Brown, A. C., McLachlan, A. (1999): Phenotypic plasticity, genetic similarity and evolutionary inertia in changing environments. Journal of Molluscan Studies 65: 136-139.

Solomon S. G., Okomoda V. T., Ogbenyikwu A. I. (2015): Intraspecific morphological variation between cultured and wild Clarias gariepinus (Burchell) (Clariidae, Siluriformes). Archives of Polish Fisheries. Vol 23, 1, Pp 53-61.

Sugama, K., Taniguchi, N., Seki, S., Nabeshima, H. (1992): Survival, growth and gonad development of triploid red sea bream, Pagrus major (Temminck et Schlegel): use of allozyme markers for ploidy and family identification. Aquaculture Research 23, 2, 149-159.

Swain, D. P, Ridell, B. E., Murray, C. B. (1991): Morphological differences between hatchery and wild populations of coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch): environmental versus genetic origin. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 48: 1783-1791.

Turan, C. (2004): Stock Identification of Mediterranean Horse Mackerel (Trachurus mediterraneus) using morphometric and meristic characters. Journal of Marine Science 61: 774-781.

Turan, C., Yalçin, S., Turan, F., Okur, E., Akyurt, I. (2005): Morphometric comparisons of African catfish, Clarias gariepinus, populations in Turkey. Folia Zoologica 54, 1-2, 165-172.

Valenti, R. J. (1975): Induced polyploidy in Tilapia aurea (Steindachner) by means of temperature shock treatment. Journal of Fish Biology 7: 519-528.

Wimberger, P. H. (1992): Plasticity of fish body shapes the effects of diet, development, family and age in two species of Geophagus (Pisces: Cichlidae). Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 45: 197-218.

Wolters, W. R., Chrisman, C. L., Libey, G. S. (1982): Erythrocyte nuclear measurements of diploid and triploid channel catfish. Journal of Fish Biology 20: 253-258.

Wolters, W. R., Libey, G. S., Chrisman, C. L. (1981): Induction of triploidy in channel catfish. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 110: 310-312.

Journal Information

CiteScore 2017: 0.80

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2017: 0.296
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2017: 0.687

Cited By


All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 170 169 28
PDF Downloads 90 89 15