The Quo Vadis of Democratization in Post-Egypt Arab Spring

Open access

Abstract

This paper aims at examining how democratization in post-uprising Egypt remains flawed and the reasons for this failure. As a background, democratization in post-Arab Spring Egypt has collapsed and it seems now merely an illusion. The situation worsened since Egypt’s democratically elected President Morsi was expelled from office through a coup, following mass protests demanding Morsi’s discharge. Egypt’s democratization is hard to achieve due to the shadow of the Pharaoh in Egypt, that is, entrenched ruling elites; Egypt’s democratization process can never succeed while Egypt’s old ruling elites are reluctant to allow this to happen.

L., 2012. The Breakdown of the Arab Authoritarian Bargain. Carnegie Middle East Center, 9 January [online]. Available at: http://carnegie-mec.org/2012/01/09/breakdown-of-arab-authoritarianbargain- pub-46414 (Accessed 31 August 2017).

Al Jazeera, 2016. Major Attacks in Egypt. Aljazeera, 13 July [online]. Available at: http://www.aljazeera.com/indepth/interactive/2015/01/majorattacks-egypt-150130161541922.html (Accessed 3 July 2017).

Al-Amin, E., 2013. The Grand Scam: Spinning Egypt’s Military Coup. Counter Punch, 19 July [online]. Available at: http://www.counterpunch.org/2013/07/19/the-grand-scam-spinning-egypts-military-coup/ (Accessed 15 July 2016).

Aly, A. M. S. and Essaila, S., 2016. Egypt’s 2015 Parliamentary Elections: A Prelude to Stability? Middle East Brief. 98

Arafat, A., 2011. Hosni Mubarak and the Future of Democracy in Egypt. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

Baker, R. W., 1981. Sadat’s Open Door: Opposition from Within. SocialProblems, 28(4): 378-384.

Barnett, M. N. and Levy, J. S., 1991. Domestic sources of alliances and alignments: the case of Egypt, 1962-73. International Organizations, 45(3): 369-395.

Bassiouni, M., 2013. Confrontation: The Muslim Brotherhood’s Last Big Stand and the Regime’s Repressive Reactions -Where is Egypt Going? 17 August [online]. Available at: http://mcherifbassiouni.com/wpcontent/uploads/Egypt-Update-22.pdf (Accessed 15 July 2016).

Brown, B. and Bentivoglio, K., 2014. Egypt’s Resurgent Authoritarianism: It’s a Way of Life. Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, 9 October [online]. Available at: http://carnegieendowment.org/2014/10/09/egypt-s-resurgent-authoritarianism-it-s-way-of-life (Accessed 15 March 2016).

Brownlee, J., 2007. Authoritarianism in an Age of Democratization. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Committee to Protect Journalists, 2016. 2016 Prison Census: 259 Journalists Jailed Worldwide. [online]. Available at: https://cpj.org/imprisoned/2016.php (Accessed 3 July 2017).

Diamond, L. J., 1999. Developing democracy: toward consolidation. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.

Dunne, M. and Hamzawy, A., 2008. The Ups and Downs of Political Reform in Egypt. In: Ottaway, M. and Chouchair-Vizoso, J. eds. Beyond the Façade: Political Reform in the Arab World. Washington D.C.: Carnegie Endowment for International Peace.

El-Adawy, A., 2013. Egypt’s Interim Cabinet: Challenges and Expectations. 23 July [online]. Available at: http://www.washingtoninstitute.org/policy-analysis/view/egypts-interim-cabinet-challenges-andexpectations (Accessed 16 March 2016].

El-Dine, C. C., 2014. Fragile Alliances in Egypt’s Post-Revolutionary Order: The Military and Its Partners. [pdf]. Available at: https://www.files.ethz.ch/isn/185251/2014C46_chams_el_dine.pdf (Accessed 15 March 2016).

El-Sherif, A., 2014. Egypt’s Post-Mubarak Predicament. Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, 29 January [online]. Available at: http://carnegieendowment.org/2014/01/29/egypt-s-postmubarak-predicament-pub-54328 (Accessed 31 August 2017).

Farid, D., 2014. Egypt’s economy over three years of turmoil. Daily News Egypt, 20 September [online]. Available at: http://www.dailynewsegypt.com/2014/09/20/egypts-economy-three-yearsturmoil/ (Accessed 10 July 2016).

Fisher, M., 2013. Here’s the Egyptian military’s full statement warning it may act in 48 hours. Washington Post, 1 July [online]. Available at: https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/worldviews/wp/2013/07/01/heres-the-egyptian-militarys-full-statement-warning-it-may-act-in-48-hours/ (Accessed 15 March 2016).

Gerbaudo, P., 2013. The roots of the coup. Soundings, (54): 105-113.

Ghannouchi, R., 2014. Tunisia shows there is no contradiction between democracy and Islam. [online]. Available at: https://www.washingtonpost.com/opinions/tunisia-shows-there-is-no-contradictionbetween-democracy-and-islam/2014/10/24/2655e552-5a16-11e4-bd61-346aee66ba29_story.html (Accessed 7 July 2017).

Hamzawy, A., 2017. Legislating authoritarianism: Egypt’s new era of repression. Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, [pdf]. Available at: http://carnegieendowment.org/files/CP_302_Hamzawy_Authoritarianism_Final_Web.pdf

Hassan, H. A., 2010. State versus society in Egypt: Consolidating democracy or upgrading autocracy. African Journal of Political Science and International Relations, 4(9): 319-329.

Hawthorne, A., 2004. Middle Eastern Democracy: Is Civil Society the Answer? Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, 1 March [online]. Available at: http://carnegieendowment.org/2004/03/01/middle-eastern-democracy-is-civil-society-answer-pub-1463 (Accessed 2 July 2017).

Haynes, J., 2013. An introduction to international relations and religion. Abingdon: Routledge.

Huntington, S. P., 1991. Democracy’s Third Wave. Journal of Democracy, 2(2): 12-34.

Huntington, S. P., 2006. Political Order in Changing Societies. New Haven: Yale University.

Kamrava, M., 2014. Beyond the Arab Spring: The Evolving Ruling Bargain in the Middle East. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

King, S. J., 2009. The New Authoritarianism in the Middle East and North Africa. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.

Kuncahyono, T., 2013. Tahrir Square: jantung revolusi Mesir. Penerbit Buku Kompas, Jakarta.

Lando, B., 2013. Egypt’s Military State Within a State. [online] Available at: http://www.huffingtonpost.com/barry-lando/egypt-coup_b_3545469.html (Accessed 3 July 2017).

Lombardi, C. B. and Brown, N. J., 2006. Do Constitutions Requiring Adherence to Shari’a Threaten Human Rights? How Egypt’s Constitutional Court Reconciles Islamic Law with the Liberal Rule of Law. American University International Review, 21(3): 379-435.

Magid, P., 2016. Understanding 554 travel bans since 2011. Mada, [online]. Available at: https://www.madamasr.com/en/2016/06/28/feature/politics/understanding-554-travel-bans-since-2011/ (Accessed 23 June 2017).

Mannheimer, E., 2014. Why Egypt, but not Tunisia?. [online] Available at: https://lup.lub.lu.se/student-papers/search/publication/4448122 (Accessed 15 March 2016).

Malik, A. and McCormick, T., 2011. Egypt: The More Things Change. [online] Available at: http://www.aljazeera.com/indepth/opinion/2011/11/20111122131237831652.html (Accessed 1 September 2017).

Mohammadpour, I., 2016. Analysis of the Role of the Press in the Egyptian Revolution of 2011. Journal of Politics and Law, 9(10): 145-155.

Najjar, F., 2017. Egypt’s NGO law aims to “erase civil society”. [online]. Available at: http://www.aljazeera.com/indepth/features/2017/02/egypt-ngo-law-aims-erase-civil-society-170215121321442.html (Accessed 5 July 2017).

Nanz, P., and Steffek, J., 2004. Global governance, participation and the public sphere. Government and Opposition, 39(2): 314-335.

Nassif, H. B., 2013. Wedded to Mubarak: The Second Careers and Financial Rewards of Egypt’s Military Elite, 1981-2011. Middle East Journal, 67(4): 509-530.

O’Donell, G. A., 1994. Delegative Democracy. Journal of Democracy, 5(1): 55-69.

O’Donnel, G., Schmitter, P., and Whitehead, L. eds., 1986. Transitions from authoritarian rule. Vol I-IV Baltim.

O’Donnell, G., Cardoso, F. H., Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, eds., 1991. Transitions from Authoritarian Rule: Comparative Perspectives. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press.

Pappalarado, J., 2011. Analysis: Dissecting America and Egypt’s Military Relationship. [online]. Available at: http://www.popularmechanics.com/technology/military/news/dissecting-america-and-egyptsmilitary-relationship-5168761 (Accessed 16 March 2016).

Perlmutter, A., 1977. The Military and Politics in Modern Times: On Professionals, Praetorians, and Revolutionary Soldiers. New Haven: Yale University Press.

Perlmutter, A., 1974. Egypt: The Praetorian State. New Brunswick: Transaction Books.

Radsch, C. C., 2013. Media Wars in Egypt: The Revolution Continues with Journalists in the Crosshairs. Huffington Post, [online]. Available at: http://www.huffingtonpost.com/courtney-c-radsch/media-warsin-egypt-the-r_b_3548032.html (Accessed 15 March 2016).

Reiter, M., 2016. Egypt’s Guantanamo: Scorpion Prison. Human Rights Brief, 8 November [online]. Available at: http://hrbrief.org/2016/11/egypts-guantanamo-scorpion-prison/

Reporters without Borders: for Freedom of Information, 2017. Data of Press Freedom Ranking. [online]. Available at: https://rsf.org/en/ranking_table (Accessed 28 September 2017).

Sayigh, Y., 2012. Above the State: The Officers’ Republic in Egypt. Carnegie Middle East Center, [online]. Available at: http://carnegie-mec.org/publications/?fa=48972 (Accessed 15 March 2016).

Schulz, M., 2011. The Role Of Civil Society In Regional Governance In The Middle East. Civil Society and International Governance, 166.

Selim, G. M., 2015. The International Dimensions of Democratization in Egypt: The Limits of Externally-Induced Change. New York: Springer.

Sirgany, S., 2015. New terrorism law could target journalists in Egypt. CNN, 6 July [online]. Available at: http://www.cnn.com/2015/07/05/africa/egypt-terrorism-law-journalists/index.html (Accessed 15 March 2016).

Sørensen, G., 2008. Democracy and Democratization: Processes and Prospects in a Changing World. 3rd ed. Boulder: Westview Press.

Stein, E., 2012. After the Arab Spring: power shift in the Middle East: revolutionary Egypt: Promises and perils. LSE Library Services, [online]. Available at: http://eprints.lse.ac.uk/43461/ (Accessed 1 October 2017).

Stepan, A. C., 2000. Religion, Democracy, and the “Twin Tolerations”. Journal of Democracy, 11(4): 37-57.

Terrorism Index, 2016. Global Terrorism Index. Institute for Economics and Peace, [pdf]. Available at: http://economicsandpeace.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/11/Global-Terrorism-Index-2016.2.pdf (Accessed 1 October 2017).

The New Arab, A., 2016. President Sisi says democracy is returning to Egypt. Alaraby, 13 February [online]. Available at: https://www.alaraby.co.uk/english/news/2016/2/13/president-sisi-says-democracy-isreturning-to-egypt (Accessed 15 March 2016).

Winter, O., 2015. El-Sisi’s First Year as President: Legitimacy, Democracy, and Relations with Israel. Strategic Assessment, 18(2): 9-20.

Cammack, P., Dunne, M., Hamzawy, A., Lynch, M., Muasher, M., Sayigh, Y. and Yahya, M., 2017. Arab Fractures: Citizens, States, and Social Contracts. Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, [online]. Available at: http://carnegieendowment.org/2017/02/01/arab-fractures-citizens-states-and-social-contracts-pub-66612 (Accessed 2 July 2017).

Zaretsky, R., 2013. Egypt’s Algerian Moment. Foreign Policy, 20 August [online]. Available at: https://foreignpolicy.com/2013/08/20/egypts-algerian-moment/ (Accessed 15 March 2016).

Croatian International Relations Review

The Journal of Institute for International Relations

Journal Information


CiteScore 2017: 0.21

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2017: 0.147
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2017: 0.626

Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 374 366 23
PDF Downloads 246 242 17