Zeamatin-Like Protein (ZLP) Gene is Associated with Resistance against A. niger in Maize (Zea mays L.)

Open access

Abstract

Maize (Zea mays L.) constitutes one of the most important crops worldwide with multi-billion dollar annual revenue. The plant is however a good substrate for growth, development and activity of filamentous fungi. A large number of fungal species causes spoilage and accumulation of mycotoxins. Plants restrict the hyphal growth by producing pathogenesis related proteins. So far 17 groups of such proteins are identified. PR-5 group comprises of the thaumatin-like proteins (TLPs), which have diverse modes of actions and act at various stages of fungal attack. Zeamatin-like protein (ZLP) is a member of TLPs, which is basically localized in seeds with enhanced expression during physiological growth and cellular differentiation. However a basal quantity is found in the leaves of many crop plants. Here we report the response of maize plant tissues against A. niger inoculation by measuring the variation in expression profile of a zeamatin-like gene. Conventional PCR coupled with RT-qPCR identifies a significant change in the expression magnitude of ZLP in pre- and post-inoculated plant samples. SDS-PAGE, followed by antimicrobial activities against A. niger, E.coli, P. aeruginosa, B. cereus, S. aureus and S. typhimurium, however, do not register a direct relationship with enhancement in gene expression. It is in line with the fact that response to pathogenesis in plants is a multigenic activity involving a series of responsible/induced genes. The assay developed is useful in primary sorting out of the maize hybrids with respect to their resistance against Aspergillus spp., especially in areas with high rate of incidence of fungal pathogenesis.

If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.

  • Cleveland T.E. Dowd P.F. Desjardins A.E. Bhatnagar D. Cotty P.J. 2003 - United States Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service research on pre-harvest prevention of mycotoxins and mycotoxigenic fungi in US crops. Pest Manag Sci 59(6-7): 629-642.

  • Cleveland T.E. Yu J. Bhatnagar D. Chen Z.Y. Brown R.L. Chang P.K. Cary J.W. 2004 - Progress in elucidating the molecular basis of the host plant - Aspergillus flavus interaction a basis for devising strategies to reduce aflatoxin contamination in crops. J Toxicol- Toxin Rev 23: 345-380.

  • Collinge D.B. Jørgensen H.J.L. Lund O.S. Lyngkjaer M.F. 2010 - Engineering pathogen resistance in crop plants - current trends and future prospects. Annu Rev Phytopathol 48: 269-291.

  • Dierks-Ventling C.1981 - Storage proteins in Zea mays (L.): interrelationship of albumins globulins and zeins in the opaque-2 mutation. Eur J Biochem 120 (1):177-82.

  • Grover A. Gowthaman R. 2003 - Strategies for development of fungus-resistant transgenic plants. Curr Sci 84(3): 330-340.

  • Guo B.Z. Chen Z.Y. Lee R.D. Scully B.T. 2008 - Drought stress and preharvest aflatoxin contamination in agricultural commodity: genetics genomics and proteomics. J Integr Plant Biol 50: 1281-1291.

  • Guo B.Z. Yu J. Holbrook C.C. Cleveland T.E. Nierman W.C. Scully B.T. 2009 - Strategy in prevention of preharvest aflatoxin contamination in peanuts: aflatoxin biosynthesis genetics and genomics. Peanut Sci 36: 11-20.

  • Huynh Q.K. Borgmeyer J.R. Zobel J.F. 1992 - Isolation and characterization of a 22 kDa protein with antifungal properties from maize seeds. Biochem Biophys Res Com 182: 1-5.

  • Koiwa H. Kato H. Nakatsu T. Oda J. Yamada Y. Sato F. 1997 - Purification and characterization of tobacco pathogenesis-related protein PR-5d an antifungal thaumatin-like protein. Plant Cell Physiol 38: 783-791.

  • Livak K.J. Schmittgen T.D. 2001 - Analysis of relative gene expression data using real- time quantitative PCR and the 2(-Delta Delta C(T)) method. Methods 25(4): 402-408.

  • Luo M. Liu J. Lee R.D. Guo B.Z. 2008 - Characterization of gene expression profiles in developing kernels of maize (Zea mays) inbred Tex6. Plant Breed 127: 569-578.

  • Luo M. Liu J. Lee R.D. Scully B.T. Guo B.Z. 2010 - Monitoring the expression of maize (Zea mays L.) genes in developing kernels under drought stress using oligomicroarray. J Integr Plant Biol 52:1059-1074.

  • Malehorn D.E. Borgmeyer J.R. Smith C.E. Shah D.M.1994 - Characterization and expression of an antifungal zeamatin-like protein (Zlp) gene from Zea mays. Plant Physiol 106: 1471-1481.

  • Puckett J.L. Kriz A.L. 1991 - Globulin gene expression in opaque-2 and floury-2 mutant maize embryos. Maydica 36:161-167.

  • Roberts W.K. Selitrennikoff C.P. 1990 - Zeamatin an antifungal protein from maize with membranepermeabilizing activity. J Gen Microbiol 136: 1771-1778.

  • Schmittgen T.D. Livak K.J. 2008 - Analyzing real-time PCR data by the comparative CT method. Nat Protoc 3: 1101-1108.

  • Schmittgen T.D. Zakrajsek B.A. 2000 - Effect of experimental treatment on housekeeping gene expression: validation by real-time quantitative RT-PCR. J Biochem Biophys Methods 46: 69-81.

  • Selitrennikoff C.P. 2001 - Antifungal proteins. Appl Environ Microbiol 67: 2883-2894

  • Strange R.N. Scott P.R. 2005 - Plant disease: a threat to global food security. Annu Rev Phytopathol 43: 83-116.

  • van Loon L.C. Rep M. Pieterse C.M. 2006 - Significance of inducible defense-related proteins in infected plants. Annu Rev Phytopathol 44: 135-162.

  • Vigers A.J. Wiedemann S. Roberts W.K. Legrand M. Selitrennikoff C.P. Fritig B. 1992 - Thaumatinlike pathogenesis-related proteins are antifungal. Plant Sci 83:155-161.

  • Wang Q. Li F. Zhang X. Zhang Y. Hou Y. Zhang S. Wu Z. 2011 - Purification and characterization of a CkTLP protein from Cynanchum komarovii seeds that confers antifungal activity. Plos One.

  • Ye X.Y. Wang H.X. Ng T.B. 1999 - First chromatographic isolation of an antifungal thaumatin-like protein from French bean legumes and demonstration of its antifungal activity. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 263: 130-134

Search
Journal information
Metrics
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 284 154 0
PDF Downloads 109 73 2