Childcare policy in the Czech Republic and Norway: two countries, two paths with many possibilities

Open access

Abstract

The objective of this paper is to analyse and compare the design and governance of the contemporary childcare policy in the Czech Republic and Norway in relation to the situation of households with dependent children under school age. Following this, we review certain provisions of the childcare policies of the two countries, whose systems possessed certain similarities at the beginning of the 1990s, although they represent distinct types of welfare state. Our analysis reveals that the chief differences in childcare policy have persisted and adapted to the key features of the welfare regimes. The two countries’ central childcare policy values contrast with each other (equity and free choice in Norway vs. re-familisation and strong ‘family dependency’ among individuals in the Czech Republic) and exhibit differences in the structure and extent of policy measures, as well. Policies in both are less sensitive to the needs of children with specific needs (such as migrants in Norway or Roma children in the Czech Republic).

Aarseth, H. (2014). Finanskapitalismens kjønnsromantikk: Næringslivselitens kjønnskomplementære familiekultur. Tidsskrift for kjønnsforskning 03-04, 203-218.

Andress, H.-J. & Heien, T. (1999). Four Worlds of Welfare State Attitudes? A Comparison of Germany, Norway, and the United States. European Sociological Review, 17 (4), 337-356.

Bahle, T. (2009). Public Child Care in Europe – Historical Trajectories and New Directions. In K. Scheiwe & H. Willekens (Eds.) Child Care and Preschool Development in Europe. Institutional Perspectives. Basingstoke, Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan.

Bartáková, H. (2009). Cesta zpátky. Návrat žen po rodičovské dovolené na trh práce v České republice. Brno: Masarykova univerzita.

Belle, van J. (2016). Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC) and its long-term effects on educational and labour market outcomes. Santa Monica, Calif., and Cambridge: RAND Corporation.

Bjørnholt, M. & Stefansen, K. & Gashi, L. & Seeberg, M.L. (2017). Balancing Acts: Policy Frameworks and Family Care Strategies in Norway. In: Sirovátka, T. & Válková, J. Understanding Care Policies in Changing Times: Experiences and Lessons from the Czech Republic and Norway. Brno: MuniPress, 161-84.

Bovaird, T. & Loeffler, E. (Eds.) (2009). Public Management and Governance. London and New York: Routledge.

Brenna, L. R. (2010). Med forskertrang og lekelyst: systematisk pedagogisk tilbud til alle førskolebarn: utredning fra utvalg oppnevnt ved kongelig resolusjon 19. juni 2009: avgitt til Kunnskapsdepartementet 1. oktober 2010, Vol. NOU 2010:8. Oslo: Departementenes servicesenter, Informasjonsforvaltning.

Cerami, A. (2006). Social Policy in Central and Eastern Europe. The Emergence of a New European Welfare Regime. Universität Erfurt Dissertation 2005. Berlin: LIT Verlag.

Cerami, A. & Vanhuysse, P. (Eds.). (2009). Post-Communist Welfare Pathways. Theorizing Social Policy Transformations in Central and Eastern Europe. Basingstoke, Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan.

Crompton, R. (1999). Restructuring Gender Relations and Employment: The Decline of the Male Breadwinner. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

ČSÚ (2015). Data on Structure of Families in the Czech Republic. Praha: Český statistický úřad. Available at: https://www.czso.cz

Duvander, A.-Z. & Lappegård, T. & Andersson, G. (2010). Family Policy and Fertility: Fathers´ and Mothers´ Use of Parental Leave and Continued Childbearing in Norway and Sweden. Journal of European Social Policy, 20(1), 45-57.

Ellingsæter, A. L. (2003). The Complexity of Family Policy Reform. The Case of Norway. European Societies, 5(4), 419-443.

Ellingsæter, A. L. (2012). Towards Universal Quality Childcare: the Norwegian Model. Paper prepared for the conference Equal Access to Childcare: Providing Quality Early Years Education and Care to Disadvantaged Families. London, September 28, 2012.

Ellingsæter, A. L. & Gulbrandsen, L. (2007). Closing the Childcare Gap: The Interaction of Childcare Provision and Mothers´ Agency in Norway. Journal of Social Policy, 36(4), 649-669.

Ellingsæter, A. L. & Leira, A. (Eds.). (2006). Politicising Parenthood in Scandinavia. Gender Relations in Welfare States. Bristol: Policy Press.

Eriksen, J. (2001). Unmarried Cohabitation and Family Policy in Norway. International Review of Sociology, 11(1), 60-74.

Esping-Andersen, G. (1999). Social Foundations of Post-Industrial Economies. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

European Commission (2009). The Provision of Childcare Services a Comparative Review of 30 European Countries. Brussels: European Commission.

European Commission (2010a). Second Biennal Report on Social Services of General Interest. Commission Staff Working Document. SEC (2010) 1284 final. Brussels: European Commission.

European Commission (2010b). Europe 2020. A European Strategy for Smart, Sustainable and Inclusive Growth. Communication from the Commission. Brussels, 3.3.2010. COM(2010) 2020. Brussels: European Commission.

European Commission (2013). Barcelona Objectives. The Development of Childcare Facilities for Young Children in Europe With a View to Sustainable and Inclusive Growth. Brussels: European Commission.

European Commission/EACEA/EURYDICE (2015). Early Childhood Education and Care Systems in Europe. National Information Sheets – 2014/15. Eurydice Facts and Figures. Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union.

EUROSTAT (2014). Key Data on Early Childhood Education and Care in Europe. 2014 Edition. Eurydice and Eurostat Report. Luxembourg: Publications Office.

EUROSTAT (2015). Early Childhood and Primary Education Statistics. Available at: http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/

EUROSTAT (2017a). Gender Pay Gap statistics. Available at: http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat

EUROSTAT (2017b). Full-Time and Part-Time Employment of Women Statistics. Available at: http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/

EUROSTAT (2017c). Gender Gap in Part-Time Employment in 2016. Available at: http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/

Hašková, H. & Saxonberg, S. & Mudrák, J. (Eds.) (2012). Péče o nejmenší: boření mýtů. Praha: Slon a Sociologický ústav AV ČR.

Hašková, H. (2007). Doma, v jeslích, nebo ve školce? Rodinná a institucionání péče o předškolní děti v české společnosti mezi lety 1945-2006. Gender, společnost, kritika, 8(2), 15-26.

Hendl, J. (2005). Kvalitativní výzkum. Praha: Portál.

Horák, P. & Horáková, M. & Sirovátka, T. (2013). The Recent Trends and Changes in Czech Social Services in The European Context: The Case of Childcare and Elderly Care. Czech and Slovak Social Work Journal, 12(5), 5-19.

Horák, P. (2005). Odlišné přístupy k implementaci individuálního akčního plánu zaměstnanosti na vybraných českých úřadech práce. In Winkler, J. & Klimplová, L. & Žižlavský, M. Účelové programy na lokálních trzích práce. Jejich význam, potřebnost a realizace (s.30-58). Brno: FSS MU.

Horák, P. (2012). Měření governance jako způsobu řízení, koordinace, kontroly a realizace veřejných politik a programů na regionální a lokální úrovni. Fórum sociální politiky, 6(4), 2-10.

Horáková, M. & Horák, P. (2010). Návrh mezinárodní komparace systému výcvikových a vzdělávacích programů. Fórum sociální politiky, 4(5), 2-10.

Horáková, M. (2010). Důvody a možnosti hodnocení výcvikových a vzdělávacích programů a jejich účinků pro nízkokvalifikované osoby: návrh komplexního hodnotícího postupu. Fórum sociální politiky, 4(1), 8-16.

Howlett, M.H. & Ramesh, M. (1995). Studying Public Policy: Policy Cycles and Policy Subsystems. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Javornik, J. (2014). Measuring State De-Familialism: Contesting Post-Socialist Exceptionalism. Journal of European Social Policy, 24(3), 240–257.

Jeroslow, P. (2014). Social Investment in Early Childhood across OECD Countries: Human Capital-Building or Development as Freedom? Paper prepared for the Twelfth Annual ESPAnet Conference. Oslo, August 4, 2014.

Jordan, J. (2013). Policy Feedback and Support for the Welfare State. Journal of European Social Policy, 23(2), 134-148.

Kickert, W.J.M. & Klijn, E-H. & Koppenjan, J.F.M. (1997). Managing Complex Networks. Strategies for the Public Sector. London: Sage.

Korpi, W. (2000). Faces of Inequality: Gender, Class and Patterns of Inequalities in Different Types of Welfare States. Social Politics, 7(2), 127-191.

Kuchařová, V. (Ed.) (2009). Péče o děti předškolního a raného školního věku. Praha: VÚPSV.

Kuitto, K. (2016). Post-Communist Welfare States in European Context. Patterns of Welfare Policies in Central and Eastern Europe. Cheltenham (UK), Northampton (USA): Edward Elgar Publishing Limited.

Lappegård, T. (2010). Family Policies and Fertility in Norway. European Journal of Population, 26(1), 99-116.

Leitner, S. (2003). Varieties of Familialism. Caring Function of the Family in Comparative Perspective. European Societies, 5(4), 353–75.

Lurie, J. & Tjelflaat, T. (2012). Children’s Rights and the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child: Monitoring and Implementation in Norway. Dialogue in Praxis, 1 (14), 1-56.

Maříková, H. (2008). Caring Fathers and Gender (In)Equality? Polish Sociological Review, 48(162), 135-152.

Meuleman, L. (2008). Public Management and the Metagovernance of Hierarchies, Networks and Markets. The Feasibility of Designing and Managing Governance Style Combinations.

MPSV (2016a). Rodičovský příspěvek. Integrovaný portal MPSV. Available at: https://portal.mpsv.cz/soc/ssp/obcane/rodicovsky_prisp

MPSV (2016b). Co se mění v roce 2017? Novinky Ministerstva práce a sociálních věcí.

MPSV (2016c). Koncepce rodinné politiky. Praha: MPSV/Odborná komise pro rodinnou politiku. Available at: http://hnutiprozivot.cz/download/zpravy/2634-koncepce_rodinne_politiky.pdf

MŠMT (2014). Výkonová data o školách a školských zařízeních – 2003/04–2013/14. Oficiální stránky ministerstva školství.

MŠMT (2015). Statistická ročenka školství - výkonové ukazatele předškolního vzdělávání. Oficiální stránky ministerstva školství. Available at: http://toiler.uiv.cz/rocenka/rocenka.asp

Natali, D. & Bonoli, G. (2012). The Politics of the New Welfare State. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

NAV (2013). Family Related Benefits. Official website of Norwegian Labour and Welfare Administration. Available at: https://www.nav.no/en/Home/Benefits+and+services/Family+related+benefits

NAV (2015). Family related benefits. Available at: https://www.nav.no/en/Home/Benefits+and+services/Family+related+benefits

NMER 2011. Framework Plan for the Content and Tasks of Kindergartens. Norwegian Ministry of Education and Research. Available at: http://www.udir.no/Upload/barnehage/Rammeplan/Framework_Plan_for_the_Content_and_Tasks_of_Kindergartens_2011_rammeplan_engelsk.pdf?epslanguage=no

OECD (2011a). Starting Strong III - A Quality Toolbox for Early Childhood Education and Care. Paris: OECD.

OECD (2011b). OECD Economic Outlook. Volume 1. Paris: OECD.

OECD (2012). OECD family database. [Online]. http://www.oecd.org/els/family/oecdfamilydatabase.htm [accessed: 18 January 2013].

OECD (2015). Starting Strong IV Monitoring Quality in Early Childhood Education and Care. Paris: OECD.

OECD (2017). Family Benefits Public Spending (Indicator). Available at: https://data.oecd.org/

OKRP (2017). Odborná komise pro rodinou politiku – zpráva o činnosti 2016. Available at: http://www.mpsv.cz/files/clanky/30178/Zprava_o_cinnosti_2016.pdf

Osborne, S.P. (Ed.) (2010). The New Public Governance? Emerging Perspectives on the Theory and Practice of Public Governance. London and New York: Routledge.

Paloncyová, E. (Ed.) (2013). Rodinné chování a rodinná politika jako kontext systému denní péče o děti ve Francii a v České republice. Praha: Výzkumný ústav práce a sociálních věcí.

Plasová, B. & Godarová, J. (2015). Analýza možností nastavení systému služeb péče o děti a návrh legislativních změn. Praha: Ministerstvo práce a sociálních věcí.

Plasová, B. & Kubalčíková, K. (2017). Balancing Acts: Family Care Strategies and Policy Frameworks in The Czech Republic. In Sirovátka, T. & Válková, J. Understanding Care Policies in Changing Times: Experiences and Lessons from the Czech Republic and Norway (pp. 135-59). Brno: MuniPress,

Plasová, B. (2011). The Czech Childcare Policy Model. The Principles, Goals and Functions of Early Childcare Services (0 to 6 years) in the Czech Republic within the Context of European Childcare Policy Goals. Social Work Journal, 11(5), 60-79.

Plasová, B. (2012). Zaměstnavatelé a nerovnováha mezi prací a rodinou. Brno: FSS MU.

Pullmann, M. & Kolář, P. (2017). Co byla normalizace? Studie o pozdním socialismu. Praha: Nakladatelství Lidové noviny.

Rønsen, M. (2004). Fertility and Family Policy in Norway – A Reflection on Trends and Possible Connections. Demographic Research, 10(10), 265-286.

Rønsen, M. & Skrede, K. (2006). Nordic Fertility Patterns: Compatible with Gender Equality? In A. Ellingsæter & A. Leira (Eds.) Politicising Parenthood in Scandinavia. Gender Relations in Welfare States (pp. 53-76). Bristol: Policy Press.

Rossi, P.H. & Lipsey, M.W. & Freeman, H.E. (2009). Evaluation: A systematic Approach. London: Sage.

Rostgaard, T. 2014. Family Policies in Scandinavia. Berlin: Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung.

Saraceno, Ch. & Keck, W. (2011). Towards an Integrated Approach for the Analysis of Gender Equity in Policies Supporting Paid Work and Care Responsibilities. Demographic Research, 25(11), 371-406.

Saxonberg, S. & Sirovátka, T. (2009). Neo-liberalism by Decay? The Evolution of the Czech Welfare State. Social Policy and Administration, 43(2), 186–203.

Šebestová, M. (2013). 60 000 nepřijatých dětí do mateřských školek, to je síla! Britské listy, 26.9.2013.

Seeberg, M. L. (2010). Siste skanse: en undersøkelse om 3-5 åringer som ikke går i barnehage, NOVA-rapport 7, 1-111. Oslo: Norsk institutt for forskning om oppvekst, velferd og aldring.

Sirovátka, T. & Greve, B. (2014). Innovation in Social Services. The Public-Private Mix in Social Provision, Fiscal Policy and Employment. Farnham: Ashgate.

Sirovátka, T. & Válková, J. (2016). Attitudes Towards Childcare Policies, Policy Feedback and Path Dependency: Czech Republic Contrasted to Norway. Manuscript.

Sirovátka, T. (2004). Family Policy in The Czech Republic after 1989: From Gendered and Enforced De-familialism to Gendered and Implicit Familialism. In Mareš, P. et al. Society, Reproduction and Contemporary Challenges (pp. 97-117). Brno: Barrister and Principal publishing.

Skevik, A. & Hatland, A. (2008). Family Policies in Norway. In Ostner, I. & Ch. Schmitt (Eds.) Family Policies in the Context of Family Change (pp. 89-107). Wiesbaden: VS Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften.

Školský zákon (2016). Zákon č. 561/2004 Sb. o předškolním, základním, středním, vyšším odborném a jiném vzdělávání (školský zákon). Availaable at: http://www.msmt.cz/uploads/skolsky_zakon.pdf

Sørensen, E. & Torfing, J. (Eds.) 2007. Theories of Democratic Network Governance. New York: Palgrave MacMillan.

Statistics Norway (2015). Indicators for Gender Equality, 2013. Data available at: https://www.ssb.no/en/befolkning/nokkeltall/key-figures-on-gender-equality

Szelewa, D. & Polakowski, M.P. (2008). Who Cares? Changing Patterns of Childcare in Central and Eastern Europe. Journal of European Social Policy, 18(2), 115-31.

Szikra, D. & Tomka, B. (2009). Social Policy in East Central Europe: Major Trends in the Twentieth Century. In A. Cerami & P. Vanhuysse (Eds.) Post-Communist Welfare Pathways. Theorizing Social Policy Transformations in Central and Eastern Europe (pp. 17-34). Basingstoke, Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan.

Válková, J. (2010). What is The Direction of the Czech Childcare Policy? In Manka Goes to Work. Public Childcare in The Visegrad Countries 1989–2009 (pp.41-56). Budapest: Budapest Institute for Policy Analysis.

Van Berkel, R. & de Graaf, W. & Sirovátka, T. (Eds.). (2011). Work and Welfare in Europe. Houndmills, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

Wagener, H. J. (2002). The Welfare State in Transition Economies and Accession to the EU. West European Politics, 25(2), 152-174.

WEF (2016). The Global Gender Gap Report 2016. World Economic Forum. Available at: http://reports.weforum.org/global-gender-gap-report-2016/the-global-gender-gap-report-2016/

Journal Information


CiteScore 2017: 0.25

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2017: 0.135
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2017: 0.085

Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 312 310 16
PDF Downloads 181 180 10