Efficiency of modified therapeutic protocol in the treatment of some varieties of canine cardiovascular dirofilariasis

Open access

Abstract

The paper presents clinical diagnostic approaches and therapeutic effects of a specific protocol for the treatment of dogs with cardiovascular dirofilariasis in the Belgrade City (Serbia) territory. The study involved 50 privately owned dogs of different breeds, gender, and age, all showing signs of cardio - respiratory disorders. In addition to a general physical examination, blood tests were done to detect microfilaria and adult forms, and X-ray, ECG, and echocardiography were performed as well. At the first examination, 34 out of 50 examined dogs were positive for microfilaria and adult forms. Because of a lack of drug used as „the golden standard“ in dirofilariasis treatment, it involved a combination of doxycycline (10 mg/kg) and ivermectin (6 μg/kg) supported with Advocate - Bayer spot-on. After six months, the first control was performed while continuing treatment with the aforesaid protocol, and the second control was performed after 12 months. Of the 34 treated dogs, all were negative for microfilaria, as early as after the first six months of the treatment (100%). One dog was positive for adult forms of the parasite after six and 12 months. In echocardiography and X-ray examination after 12 months, six dogs showed evident chronic changes. At controls conducted at sixth month and at one year, the implemented therapy was successful in 97.05% (33/34) of primarily infected dogs.

1. American Heartworm Society (AHS): Current Canine Guidelines for the Prevention, Diagnosis and Management of Heartworm (Dirofilaria immitis) Infection in Dogs. (Revised, 2014).

2. Atkins C.E., Miller M.W.: Is there a better way to administer Heartworm adulticidal therapy? Vet Med 2003. 98, 310-317.

3. Badertscher R.R., Losonsky J.M., Paul A.J., Kneller S.K.: Two dimensional echocardiography for diagnosis of dirofilariosis in nine dogs. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1988, 193, 843-846.

4. Bazzocchi C., Mortarino M., Grandi G., Kramer L.H., Genchi C., Bandi C., Genchi M., Sacchi L., Mc Call J.W.: Combined ivermectin and doxycycline treatment has microfilaricidal and adulticidal activity against Dirofilaria immitis in experimentally infected dogs. Int J Parasitol 2008, 38, 1401-1410.

5. Ciocan R., Darabus G.H., Jacso O., Fok E.: Detection of Dirofilaria spp. in dogs by PCR. Bull UASVM Vet Med 2010, 67, 40-44.

6. Di Saco B., Venzzoni A.: Clinical classification of heartworm disease for the purpose of adding objectivity to the assessment of therapeutic efficacy of adultical drug in the field. In: Proceedings of Heartworm Symposium of American Heartworm Society, edited by Otto G.H., Batavia, 1992, pp. 209-214.

7. Dimitrijević S., Tasić A., Tasić S., Adamović V., Ilić T., Miladinović-Tasić N.: Filariosis in dogs in Serbia. In: Proceedings of the first European Dirofilaria days, edited by Genchi C., Rinaldi L., Cringoli G., Zagreb, Croatia, 2007, p. 201.

8. Genchi C., Venco L., Genchi M.: Guideline for the laboratory diagnosis of canine and feline Dirofilaria infections. Mappe Parassitol 2005, 8, 139-144.

9. Gioia G., Lecova L., Genchi M., Ferri E., Genchi C., Mortarino M.: Highly sensitive multiplex PCR for simultaneous detection and discrimination of Dirofilaria immitis and Dirofilaria repens in canine peripheral blood. Vet Parasitol 2010, 172, 160-163.

10. Grandi G., Quintavalla C., Mavropoulou A., Genchi M., Gnudi G., Bertoni G., Kramer L.: A combination of doxycycline and ivermectin is adulticidal in dogs with naturally acquired heartworm disease (Dirofilaria immitis). Vet Parasitol 2010, 169, 347-351.

11. Kitagawa H., Sasaki Y., Isihara K.: Canine Dirofilaria hemoglobinuria: changes in right heart hemodynamics and heartworm migration from pulmonary artery toward right atrium following beta - blocker administration. Jpn J Vet Sci 1987, 49, 1081-1086.

12. Kramer L., Grandi G., Leoni M., Passeri B., McCall J., Genchi C., Mortasino M., Bazzocchi C.: Wolbachia and its influence on the pathology and immunology of Dirofilaria immitis infection. Vet Parasitol 2008, 158, 191-195.

13. Köse M., Erdoğan M.: Serological screening of canine heartworm (Dirofilaria immitis) infections in Turkey. Berl Munch Tierarztl Wochenschr 2012, 125, 503-508.

14. Magnis J., Lorentz S., Guardone L., Grimm F., Magi M., Naucke J.T., Deplazes P.: Morphometric analyses of canine blood microfilariae isolated by the Knott’s test enables Dirofilaria immitis and D. repens species-specific and Acanthocheilonema (syn. Dipetalonema) genus-specific diagnosis. Parasit Vectors 2013, 6, 48-52.

15. Mc Call J.W.: The safety-net story about macro cyclic lactone heartworm preventatives: a review, an update and recommendations. Vet Parasitol 2005, 133, 197-206.

16. Mc Call J.W., Genchi C., Kramer L., Guerrero J., Dzimianski M.T., Supakorndej P., Mansour A.M., Mc Call S.D., Supakorndej N., Grandi G., Carson B.: Heartworm and Wolbachia: therapeutic implications. Vet Parasitol 2008, 158, 204-214.

17. Mc Call J.W., Kramer L., Genchi C., Guerrero J., Dzimianski M.T., Supakorndej P., Carson B.: Effects of doxycycline on early infections of Dirofilaria immitis in dogs. Vet Parasitol 2011, 176, 361-367.

18. Miodrag J.: Prilog poznavanju dijagnostike, terapije i profilakse dirofilarioze pasa na teritoriji Grada Beograda, Academic specialisation (on post graduate course for pathology and therapy of small animals) Faculty of Veterinary Medicine. University of Belgrade, Serbia. 2012.

19. Morchón R., Carretón E., González-Miguel J.: Heartworm disease (Dirofilaria immitis) and their vectors in Europe - new distribution trends. Front Physiol 2012, 3: 196.

20. Razi Jalali H.M., Mosallanejad B., Avizeh R.: Dirofilaria immitis infection in a Dachshund dog: diagnosis and treatment. Iranian J Vet Sci Technol 2011, 3, 49-56.

21. Rossi M.I., Paiva J., Bendas A., Mendes-de-Almeida F., Knackfuss F., Miranda M., Guerrero J., Fernandes O., Labarthe N.: Effects of doxycycline on the endosymbiont Wolbachia in Dirofilaria immitis (Leidy, 1856) naturally infected dogs. Vet Parasitol 2010, 174, 119-123.

22. Tai C.T., Huang P.H.: Echocardiographic assessment of right heart indices in dogs with elevated pulmonary artery pressure associated with chronic respiratory disorders, heartworm disease, and chronic degenerative mitral valvular disease. Veterinarni Med 2013, 58, 613-620.

23. Taraneh Ö., Gülay V.: Seroprevalence of Dirofilaria immitis in stray dogs in Istanbul and Izmir. Turk J Vet Anim Sci 2005, 29, 785-789.

24. Tasić A., Ilić T., Dimitrijević S.: Epizootiological characteristics of dirofilariosis. In: Dirofilariosis of dogs and cats. Proceedings of Serbian Association of Small Animal Practitioners. Belgrade, Serbia, 2010, p. 6.

25. Tasić A., Rossi L., Tasić S., Miladinović-Tasić N., Ilić T., Dimitrijević S.: Survey of canine dirofilariasis in Vojvodina. Serbia. Parasitol Res 2008, 103, 1297-1302.

26. Tasić A., Tasić-Otašević S., Gabrielli S., Miladinović-Tasić N., Ignjatović A., Dornević J., Dimitrijević S., Cancrini G.: Canine dirofilariosis in two non-investigated areas of Serbia: epidemiological and genetical aspects. Vector-Borne Zoon Dis 2012, 12, 1031-1035.

27. Tasić A.: Ispitivanje prevalencije filarioza pasa u nekim područjima Vojvodine. PhD Dissertation. Belgrade University. Belgrade, 2005.

28. Venco L, Genchi C, Vigevani Colson P, Kramer L: Relative utility of echocardiography, radiography, serologic testing and microfilariae counts to predict adult worm burden in dogs naturally infected with heartworms. In: Seward LE, Knight DH, Eds: Recent Advances in Heartworm Disease. Symposium ’01. American Heartworm Society. Batavia, Illinois, 2003, pp 111-124.

29. Venco L., Mc Call J.W., Guerrero J., Genchi C.: Efficacy of long term monthly administration of ivermectin on the progress of naturally acquired heartworm infections in dogs. Vet Parasitol 2004, 124, 259-268.

Bulletin of the Veterinary Institute in Pulawy

The Journal of National Veterinary Research Institute in Pulawy

Journal Information


IMPACT FACTOR 2018: 0,829
5-year IMPACT FACTOR: 0,938

CiteScore 2018: 0.68


SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2018: 0.291
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2018: 0.501

Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 269 193 16
PDF Downloads 105 86 9