The study was conducted at all regional veterinary diagnostic laboratories. Feed materials were examined for Salmonella prevalence and contamination by Enterobacteriaceae, aerobic mesophilic bacteria, total plate count, fungi, Clostridium sp., and Bacillus cereus. Assays were done following international and Polish standards used in food and feed microbiology. Salmonella sp. were most often detected in oil seeds. In most of the examined feed ingredients, the number of Enterobacteriaceae did not exceed 10 cfu/g. The contamination by aerobic bacteria ranged most often from 101to 107 cfu/g, and the highest mycological contamination was noted in cereal grains (108 cfu/g). The results showed that microbial contamination of feed materials in regard to Enterobacteriaceae, fungi, and total plate counts declined over the past years.
1. Baums C.G., Schotte U., Amtsberg G., Goethe R.: Diagnostic multiplex PCR for toxin genotyping of Clostridium perfringens isolates. Vet Microbiol 2004, 100, 11-16.
2. Beuchat L.R., Mann D.A., Gurtler J.B.: Comparison of dry sheet media and conventional agar media methods for enumerating yeasts and molds in food. J Food Prot 2007, 70, 2661-2664.
3. Bryan F.L.: Diseases transmitted by foods. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, 1982.
4. Christiansson A., Bertilsson J., Svensson B.: Bacillus cereus spores in raw milk: factors affecting the contamination of milk during the grazing period. J Dairy Sci 1999, 82, 305-314.
5. Colditz I.G.: Effects of the immune system on metabolism: implications for production and disease resistance in livestock. Livest Prod Sci 2002, 3, 257-268.
6. Crump J.A., Griffin P.M., Angulo F.J.: Bacterial contamination of animal feed and its relationship to human foodborne illness. Clin Infect Dis 2002, 35, 859-865.
7. Davies P.R., Funk J.A.: Epidemiology and control of Salmonella in pork-some of the questions. In: Proceedings of the 3rdInternational Symposium on Epidemiology and Control ofSalmonella in Pork, Washington, 1999, pp. 1-11.
8. Geiser F.: Food safety begins in the stable. FVO Magazine 2001, 4, 1-5.
9. Hartog J.: Feed for food: HACCP in the animal feed industry. Food Control 2003, 14, 95-99.
10. Jones F.T., Richardson K.E.: Salmonella in commercially manufactured feeds. Poult Sci 2004, 83, 384-391.
11. Kamat A.S., Nerkar D.P., Nair P.M.: Bacillus cereus in some Indian foods, incidence and antibiotic, heat and radiation resistance. J Food Safety 1989, 10, 31-41.
12. Knowles T., Richard Moody R., Morven G., McEachern M.G.: European food scares and their impact on EU food policy. Brit Food J 2007, 109, 43-67.
13. Knox W.A., Galbraith N.C., Lewis M.J., Hickie G.C., Johnston H.H.: A milkborne outbreak of food poisoning due to Salmonella Heidelberg. J Hyg 1963, 61, 175-185.
14. Kwiatek K., Kukier E., Wasyl D., Hoszowski A.: Microbiological quality of feed materials in Poland. Med Weter 2008, 64, 183-188.
15. Kwiatek K., Kukier E., Wasyl D., Hoszowski A.: Microbiological quality of compound feedstuffs in Poland. Med Weter 2008, 64, 949-954.
16. Kukier E., Kwiatek K.: Microbiological quality of feed materials used in Poland. Bull Vet Inst Pulawy 2011, 55, 709-715.
17. Kukier E., Goldsztejn M., Grenda T., Kwiatek K., Wasyl D., Hoszowski D.: Microbiological quality of compound feed used in Poland. Bull Vet Inst Pulawy 2012, 56, 349-354.
18. Lindström M., Myllykoski J., Sivelä S., Korkeala H.: Clostridium botulinum in cattle and dairy products. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 2010, 50, 281-304.
19. Maciorowski K.G., Herrera P., Jones F.T., Pillai S.D., Ricke S.C.: Effects on poultry and livestock of feed contamination with bacteria and fungi. Anim Feed Sci Tech 2007, 133, 109-136.
20. Magnusson M., Christiansson A., Svensson B.: Bacillus cereus spores during housing of dairy cows: factors affecting contamination of raw milk. J Dairy Sci 2007, 90, 2745-2754.
21. Pennington J.H., Brooksbank N.H., Pool P.M., Seymour F.: Salmonella Virchow in a chicken-packing station and associated rearing units. Br Med J 1968, 4, 804-806.
22. Pirttijärvi T.S., Andersson M.A., Salkinoja-Salonen M.S.: Properties of Bacillus cereus and other bacilli contaminating biomaterial-based industrial processes. Int J Food Microbiol 2000, 25, 231-239.
23. Preliminary report. Analysis of the baseline study on the prevalence of Salmonella in laying hen flocks of Gallus gallus. EFSA J 2006, 81, 1-74.
24. Product Board Animal Feed. Evaluation of the measures to control Salmonella in the animal feed sector 2004. Hague, the Netherlands, 2005.
25. Raevuori M., Pekkanen T.J.: The occurrence of Bacillus cereus in Finnish dog food sausages; a microbiological and physiochemical survey. Nord Vet Mad 1976, 28, 309-315.
26. Raphael B.H., Anreadis J.D.: Real-time PCR detection of the nontoxic-nonhemagglutinin gene as a rapid screening method for bacterial isolates harboring the botulinum neurotoxin (A-G) gene complex. J Microbiol Meth 2007, 71, 343-346.
27. Scientific report of EFSA and ECDC. The European Union summary report on trends and sources of zoonoses, zoonotic agents and food-borne outbreaks in 2010.
28. Sprouts and foodborne disease. In: Food Safety and Hygiene, A bulletin for the Australian Food Industry 2000. Food Science Australia.
29. Vlachou S., Zoiopoulos P.E., Drosinos E.H.: Assessment of some hygienic parameters of animal feeds in Greece. Anim Feed Sci Tech 2004, 17, 331-337.
30. Weiner A., Paprocka I., Gołębiowska A., Kwiatek K.: Prospects of implementation of meat and bone meal into the animal nutrition. Życie Wet 2012, 87, 1035-1037.