The study was conducted on 20 clinically healthy stallions, aged 3-4 years. The evaluation of the degree of adaptation of stallions to exercise loads in the course of a 100-d training programme was conducted three times: (I) - on the 1st d of training, (II) - on the 46th d of training, and (III) - on the 97th d of training. Rectal temperature (T) and number of heart and respiratory rates were measured. Blood was sampled before exercise (1), after exercise (2), and 30 min after rest (3). The following indices were determined in the blood: concentration of haemoglobin, haematocrit level, number of red blood cells, white blood cells, lymphocytes, neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils, monocytes, and platelets. Post-exertion changes in the evaluated indicators showed moderate intensity to the applied loads with respect to functional potential of tested horses. The effect of the standard 100-d training was to stimulate the body's adaptation to functional tasks, which was evidenced, among others, by lower variability of post-exertion T and the number of red blood cells. The highest T increase was found at the beginning of the programme (about 2.1%), whereas during the subsequent studies (II and III) it was significantly (P<0.05) lower (0.98% and 0.84%, respectively). The variability in red blood cell count in the course of training showed a downward trend (16.4%, 13.7%, and 11.0%, respectively). The results confirm the relatively low exercise loads and good health of young stallions during the 100-d performance test.
1. Art T., Lekeux P.: Exercise-induced physiological adjustments to stressful conditions in sports horses. Livest Prod Sci 2005, 92, 101-111.
2. Bis-Wencel H., Lutnicki K., Rowicka A.Z., Bryl M.: Longterm exercise and its effect on selected hematological parameters of blood in horses. Med Weter 2011, 67, 418-421.
3. Boutey R.E., Santoro S.A.: Interactions of exercise coagulations and fibrinolysis - a brief review. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1988, 20, 439-446.
4. Chachułowa J., Budzyński M., Chrzanowski S., Ziołecka A.: Equine nutrition standards. Dietary advices and nutritional value of feed. Edited by J. Kielanowski`s Institute of Animal Physiology and Nutrition PAN, Jabłonna k. Warszawy, 1997.
5. Fan Y.K., Hsu J.C., Peh H.C., Tsang C.L., Cheng S.P., Chiu S.C., Ju J.C.: The effects of endurance training on the hematogram of the horse. Asian-Aust J Anim Sci 2002, 15, 1348-1353.
6. Gleeson M., Greenhaff J.B., Leiper J.B., Marlin D.J., Maughan R.J., Pitsiladis Y.: Drainage, irrigation and exercise in a hot environment. Medicina Sportiva 2001, 5, 99-109.
7. Iversen P.O., Stokland A., Rolstad B., Benestad H.B.: Adrenaline-induced leukocytosis: recruitment of blood cells from rat spleen, bone marrow and lymphatics. Eur J Appl Physiol 1994, 68, 219-227.
8. Janicki B., Kochowicz A., Cygan-Szczegielniak D., Krumrych W.: Fundamentals of exercise physiology in horses. Med Weter 2012, 68, 323-327.
9. Jawor P., Stefaniak T., Borkowski J., Przewoźny M., Wierzbicki H., Swagemakers J.H.: Utility of selected blood parameters in monitoring the accuracy of show jump-horse training. Med Weter 2007, 63, 213-218.
10. Kędzierski W., Bergero D., Assenza A.: Trends of haematological and biochemical values in the blood of young race horses during standardized field exercise tests. Acta Vet (Beograd) 2009, 59, 457-466.
11. Kędzierski W., Podolak M.: The effect of breaking a horse on its metabolism. Med Weter 2001, 57, 207-209.
12. Kestin A.S., Ellis P.A., Barnard M.R., Errichetti A., Rosner B.A., Michelson A.D.: Effect of strenuous exercise on platelet activation state and reactivity. Circulation 1993, 88, 1502-1511.
13. Krumrych W.: Effect of a standard physical exercise of horses on the values of selected clinical and haematological indices. Med Weter 2009, 65, 399-403.
14. Krumrych W.: Influence of exercise on mechanisms of immunity in horses. Med Weter 2011, 67, 177-180.
15. Krumrych W.: Variability of clinical and haematological indices in the course of training exercise in jumping horses. Bull Vet Inst Pulawy 2006, 50, 391-396.
16. Krumrych W.: Laboratory indicators of blood horses - reference values and interpretation. Edited by PIWet 2003, Pulawy, Poland.
17. Muñoz A., Castejõn F.M., Rubio D.M., Vivo R., Agüera E.I., Escribano B.M., Santisteban R.: How erythrocyte and plasma lactate concentrations are related in Andalusian horses during an exercise test and recuperation. J Equine Sci 1996, 7, 35-42.
18. Muñoz A., Cuesta I., Riber C., Gata J., Trigo P., Castejõn F.M.: Trot asymmetry in relation to physical performance and metabolism in equine endurance rides. Equine Vet J 2006, 36, 50-54.
19. Muñoz A., Riber C., Santisteban R., Rubio M.D., Agüera E.I., Castejõn F.M.: Cardiovascular and metabolic adaptations in horses competing in cross country events. J Vet Med Sci 1999, 61, 13-20.
20. Nuberg K., Geringer de Oedenberg H.: The influence of training on the haematological parameters of sport horses. Acta Sci Pol Zootechnica 2007, 6, 59-68.
21. Nuberg-Zuchowicz K., Geringer de Oedenburg H.: Changes in hematological parameters of show jumping horses during yearly training cycle. Med Weter 2011, 67, 765-769.
22. Piccione G., Arcigli A., Costa A., Fazio F., Caola G.: Changes in the clotting times and fibrinogen concentrations in horses during a showjump. Slov Vet Res 2004, 41, 41-45.
23. Piccione G., Casella S., Giannetto C., Messina V., Monteverde V., Caola G., Guttadauro S.: Haematological and haematochemical responses to training and competition in standardbred horses. Comp Clin Pathol 2010, 19, 95-101.
24. Piccione G., Casella S., Monteverde V., Giannetto C., Caola G.: Haematological modifications during official 1600 and 2000 meters trot races in Standardbred horses. Acta Vet (Beograd) 2008, 58, 325-332.
25. Piccione G., Gianetto C., Fazio F., Di Mauro S., Caola G.: Haematological response to different workload in jumper horses. Bulg J Vet Med 2007, 10, 21-28.
26. Sexton W.L., Erickson H.H.: Effects of treadmill elevation on heart rate, blood lactate concentration and packed cell volume during graded submaximal exercise on ponies. Equine Vet J 1990, 9 (Suppl.), 57-60.
27. Stewart G.A., Clarkson G.T., Steel J.D.: Hematology of the racehorse and factors affecting interpretation of the blood count. Proc Am Ass Equine Pract 1970, 16, 17-35.