Motivation and Satisfaction of Employees in the Workplace

Open access

Abstract

Background: The aging of the European population is a demographic trend reflected in the ever-growing number of older employees. This paper introduces the importance of motivation and satisfaction in the workplace among age diverse employees in Slovenian companies.

Objectives: The goal is to investigate the differences between the motivation and satisfaction of employees from different age groups in the workplace.

Methods/Approach: The paper is based on research including a survey of two age groups of employees in Slovenia. We employed the Mann-Whitney U test to verify differences in the motivation and satisfaction in the workplace between the two groups.

Results: Older employees are more motivated by flexibility in the workplace; autonomy at work; good interpersonal relationships in the workplace; the possibility of working at their own pace; respect among employees; equal treatment of employees regardless of their age. They are more satisfied with interpersonal relationships in the company; their work; working hours and the distribution of work obligations; and facilitation of the self-regulation of the speed of work performed.

Conclusions: Motivation and satisfaction change as individuals age. Using this information, managers and employers can apply appropriate measures to contribute to employees’ well-being and better workplace performance, better working relationships with colleagues, higher productivity, and greater creativity.

1. Aghazadeh, S. M. (2004), “Managing workforce diversity as an essential resource for improving organizational performance”, International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management, Vol. 53, No. 6, pp. 521-531.

2. Artz, B. (2010), “Fringe benefits and job satisfaction”, International Journal of Manpower, Vol. 31, No.6, pp. 626-644.

3. Baltes, B.B., Finkelstein, L.M., Kunze, F., Boehm, S.A., Bruch, H. (2011), “Age diversity, age discrimination climate and performance consequences-a cross organizational study”, Journal of Organizational Behavior, Vol. 32, No. 2, pp. 264-290.

4. Bartol, K. M., Martin, D.C. (1998). Management, McGraw-Hill, New York.

5. Bigliardi, B., Dormio, A.I., Galati, F., Schiuma G. (2012), “The impact of organizational culture on the job satisfaction of knowledge workers”, VINE, Vol. 42, No. 1, pp. 36-51.

6. Brooke, L. (2003), “Human resource costs and benefits of maintaining a mature-age workforce”, International Journal of Manpower, Vol. 24, No. 3, pp. 260-283.

7. Chileshe, N. Haupt, T. C. (2010), “The effect of age on the job satisfaction of construction workers”, Journal of Engineering, Design and Technology, Vol. 8, No. 1, pp. 107-118.

8. Claes, R., Heymans, M. (2008), “HR professionals views on work motivation and retention of older workers: a focus group study”, Career Development International, Vol. 13, No. 2, pp. 95-111.

9. Garg, P., Rastogi, R. (2006), “New model of job design: motivating employees performance”, Journal of Management Development, Vol. 25, No. 6, pp. 572-587.

10. Gellert, F. J., Kuipers, B. S. (2008), “Short- and long-term consequences of age in work teams: An empirical exploration of ageing teams”, Career Development International, Vol. 13, No. 2, pp. 132-149.

11. Ghosheh Jr., N. S., Lee, S., McCann, D. (2006). Conditions of work and employment for older workers in industrialized countries: understanding the issues, International Labour Organization, Conditions of Work and Employment Series.

12. Groot, W., Brink, H. M. (1999), “Job satisfaction of older workers”, International Journal of Manpower, Vol. 20, No. 6, pp. 343-360.

13. Harrison, D. A., Newman, D. A., Roth, P. L. (2006), “How important are job attitudes? Meta-analytic comparisons of integrative behavioral outcomes and time sequences”, Academy of Management Journal, Vol. 49, No. 2, pp. 305-325.

14. Henkens, K., Leenders M. (2010), “Burnout and older workers intentions to retire”, International Journal of Manpower, Vol. 31, No. 3, pp. 306-321.

15. Hertel, G., Van der Heijden, B. I. J. M., de Lange, A. H., Deller J. (2013), “Facilitating age diversity in organizations – part II: managing perceptions and interactions”, Journal of Managerial Psychology, Vol. 28, No. 7/8, pp. 857-866.

16. Ilmarinen, J. (2001), “Aging workers”, Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Vol. 58, No. 8, pp. 546-552.

17. Islam, R., Ismail, A. Z. H. (2008), “Employee motivation: a Malaysian perspective”, International Journal of Commerce and Management, Vol. 18, No. 4, pp. 344-362.

18. Jex, S. M., Britt, T. W. (2008). Organizational Psychology: A Scientist-Practitioner Approach, John Wiley & Sons, New York.

19. Kanfer, R., Ackerman, P. L. (2004), “Aging, adult development, and work motivation”, Academy of Management Review, Vol. 29, No. 3, pp. 440-458.

20. Koc-Menard, S. (2009), “Flexible work options for older workers”, Strategic HR Review, Vol. 8, No. 2, pp. 31-36.

21. Kooij, D., de Lange, A., Jansen, P., Dikkers, J. (2008), “Older workers motivation to continue to work: five meanings of age”, Journal of Managerial Psychology, Vol. 23, No. 4, pp. 364-394.

22. Kooij, D., De Lange, A., Jansen, P., Kanfer, R., Dikkers, J. (2011), “Age and work-related motives: results of a meta-analysis”, Journal of Organizational Behavior, Vol. 32, No. 2, pp. 197-225.

23. Lange, A. H., de Taris, T. W., Jansen, P. G. W., Smulders, P., Houtman, I. L. D., Kompier, M. A. J. (2006), “Age as a factor in the relation between work and mental health: results from the longitudinal TAS study”, in Houdmont, J., McIntyre, S. (eds), Occupational Health Psychology: European Perspectives on Research, Education and Practice (Vol. 1), ISMAI Publications, Maia, Portugal, pp. 21-45.

24. Linz, S. J. (2004), “Motivating Russian workers: analysis of gender and age differences”, Journal of Socio-Economics, Vol. 33, No. 3, pp. 261-289.

25. Milenovic, Z. M. (2011), “Application of Mann-Whitney U test in research of professional training of primary school teachers”, Metodički obzori, Vol. 6, No. 1, pp. 73-79.

26. Monk, R. (1996), “The motivation of managers for training”, Management Development Review, Vol. 9, No. 3, pp. 26-32.

27. Moore, F. (2007), “Work-life balance: contrasting managers and workers in an MNC”, Employee Relations, Vol. 29, No. 4, pp. 385-399.

28. Noonan, A. E. (2005), “At this point now: Older workers reflections on their current employment experiences”, International Journal of Aging and Human Development, Vol. 61, No. 3, pp. 211-241.

29. Origo, F., Pagani, L. (2008), “Workplace flexibility and job satisfaction: some evidence from Europe”, International Journal of Manpower, Vol. 29, No. 6, pp. 539-566.

30. Peeters, M.C.W, Emmerik, H. (2008), “An introduction to the work and well-being of older workers: From managing threats to creating opportunities”, Journal of Managerial Psychology, Vol. 23, No. 4, pp. 353-363.

31. Rad A. M. M., Yarmohammadian, M. H. (2006), “A study of relationship between managers leadership style and employees job satisfaction”, Leadership in Health Services, Vol. 19, No. 2, pp. 11-28.

32. Robson, S. M., Hansson, R. O., Abalos, A., Booth, M. (2006), “Successful aging: criteria for aging well in the workplace”, Journal of Career Development, Vol. 33, No. 2, pp. 156-177.

33. Shacklock, K., Brunetto, Y. (2011), “A model of older workers intentions to continue working”, Personnel Review, Vol. 40, No. 2, pp. 252-274.

34. Stamov-Roßnagel, C., Biemann, T. (2012), “Ageing and work motivation: a task-level perspective”, Journal of Managerial Psychology, Vol. 27, No. 5, pp. 459-478.

35. Stamov-Roßnagel, C., Hertel, G. (2010), “Older workers motivation: against the myth of general decline”, Management Decision, Vol. 48, No. 6, pp. 894-906.

36. Templer, A., Armstrong-Stassen, M., Cattaneo, J. (2010), “Antecedents of older workers motives for continuing to work”, Career Development International, Vol. 15, No. 5, pp. 479-500.

37. UK Essays, (2015), “Employee Motivation in Tourism Industry”, available at: https://www.ukessays.com/essays/business/employee-motivation.php (10 april 2016).

38. Van Dick, R., van Knippenberg, D., Hagele, S., Guillaume, Y.R., Brodbeck, F.C. (2008), “Group diversity and group identification: the moderating role of diversity beliefs”, Human Relations, Vol. 61, No. 10, pp. 1463-1492.

39. Wiley, C. (1997) “What motivates employees according to over 40 years of motivation surveys”, International Journal of Manpower, Vol. 18, No. 3, pp. 263-280.

Business Systems Research Journal

The Journal of Society for Advancing Innovation and Research in Economy

Journal Information

Cited By

Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 6045 5866 662
PDF Downloads 4538 4443 639