Clusters as a Factor of Rural Tourism Competitiveness: Montenegro Experiences

Open access

Abstract

Background: The tourism cluster-approach is considered to be an appropriate strategy in emerging economies and less developed areas. Due to scarce resources and a great number of structural problems of rural areas in Montenegro, uniting all stakeholders and attractions into a competitive tourism cluster would ensure that the area could operate and become an effective and efficient rural tourism destination. Objectives: The objective of this paper is to highlight the key challenges of rural tourism clustering and provide new data and a wider understanding of the tourism-cluster approach in Montenegrin rural areas. Methods: Using the extensive literature, available secondary data from government bodies, NGOs, foreign development agencies, relevant international organisations and primary data collected from rural tourism operators in Montenegro, the paper investigates key challenges and factors associated with (in)efficiency of Montenegrin theme trails. Results: Several management and marketing issues are identified regarding the cluster approach implementation. Special importance and significance of information technologies and intelligent systems have been recognized in sense of cost-effective marketing implementation. Most Montenegrin trails are still in the first phase of cluster development, whereas just two of them have experienced a significant improvement in cooperative behaviour. Conclusions: Key benefits of the cluster approach are noted and clearly defined, but in the case of the Montenegrin rural tourism sector, these potentials are still, to a large extent, underused.

1. Augustyn, M., Thomas, R. (2007), “Small Firms in the New Europe: Key Issues, Conclusions and Recommendations”, in Thomas, R. and Augustyn, M. (Ed.) Tourism in the New Europe: Perspectives on SME Policies and Practices, Oxford, Elsevier, pp. 227-236.

2. Braun, P. (2005), „Creating Value to Tourism Products through Tourism Networks and Clusters: Uncovering Destination Value Chains“, OECD & Korea Conference Global Tourism Growth: A Challenge for SMEs.

3. Briedenhann, J., Wickens, E. (2004), „Tourism Routes as a Tool for the Economic Development of Rural areas: Vibrant Hope or impossible Dream?“, Tourism Management, Vol. 25, No. 1, pp. 71-79.

4. Bruwer, J. (2003), „South African Wine Routes: Some Perspectives on the Wine Tourism Industry’s structural Dimensions and Wine Tourism Product“, Tourism Management, Vol. 24, No. 4, pp. 423-435.

5. Butler, R., Hall, M. C. and Jenkins, J., (1998), Tourism and Recreation in Rural Areas, John Wiley & Sons.

6. Clarke, J. (2005), “Effective Marketing for Rural Tourism”, in Hall, D., Kirkpatrick, I. and Mitchell, M. (Ed.) Rural Tourism and Sustainable Business, Clevedon, Channel View Publications, pp. 87-102.

7. Cooper, C., Fletcher, J., Fyall, A., Gilbert, D., Wanhill, S., (2005), Tourism: Principles and Practice, Pearson Education.

8. Demonja, D., Ružić, P. (2011), Rural Tourism in Croatia with Croatian Case Studies of Good Practice and European Experiences, Meridians.

9. European Commission, (2000), Towards quality rural tourism: Integrated Quality Management (IQM) of Rural Tourist Destinations, Enterprise Directorate-General Tourism Unit.

10. Gretzel, U. (2001), “Intelligent Systems in Tourism: A Social Perspective”, Annals of Tourism Research, Vol. 38, No. 3, pp. 757-779.

11. Hall D., Mitchell, M. and Roberts, L. (2005), “Tourism and the Countryside: Dynamic Relationship”, in Hall D., Roberts, L. and Mitchell, M. (Ed.) New Directions in Rural Tourism, Aldershot, pp. 3-18.

12. Hall C.M. and Mitchell R., (2008), Wine Marketing: A Practical Guide, Butterworth- Heinemann.

13. Hall, C.M., (2005), “Rural Wine and Food Tourism Cluster and Network Development”, in Hall, D., Kirkpatrick, I. and Mitchell, M. (Ed.) Rural Tourism and Sustainable Business, Clevedon, Channel View Publications, pp. 149-164.

14. Hall, C.M., Mitchel, M. and Sharples, L., (2003), “Consuming Places: The Role of Food, Wine and Tourism in Regional Development”, in Hall, C.M, Sharples, L., Mitchell, R., Macionis, N. and Cambourne, B. (Ed.) Food Tourism Around the World: Development, management and Markets, Oxford, Butterworth-Heinemann, pp. 25-59.

15. Hall, D. (2004), “Rural Tourism Development in Southeastern Europe: Transition and the Search for Sustainability”, International Journal of Tourism Research, Vol. 6, No. 3, pp. 165-176.

16. Holloway J. C., Taylor, N., (2007), The Business of Tourism, Prentice Hall.

17. Kim, N., Wicks, B. E., (2010), „Rethinking Tourism Cluster Development Models for Global Competitiveness“, International CHRIE Conference-Refereed Track 2010 ICHRIE Conference, Paper 28., University of Massachusetts, available at: http://scholarworks.umass.edu/refereed/CHRIE_2010/Friday/28 (7, September, 2013)

18. Laškarin, M. (2012), “Web Communicatuon Management in Hotel Marketing”, Informatologia, Vol. 45, No. 4, pp. 314-322.

19. Law, R., Leung, R., Buhalis, D. (2009), “Information Technology Applications in Hospitality and Tourism: A Review of Publications from 2005 to 2007”, Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing, Vol. 26, No. 5-6, pp. 599-623.

20. Meyer-Cech, K. (2003), “Food Trails in Austria”, in Hall, C.M, Sharples, L., Mitchell, R., Macionis, N. and Cambourne, B. (Ed.) Food Tourism Around the World: Development, management and Markets, Oxford, Butterworth-Heinemann, pp. 149-157.

21. Meyer-Cech, K. (2005), “Regional Cooperation in Rural Tourism Trails”, in Hall, D., Kirkpatrick, I. and Mitchell, M. (Ed.) Rural Tourism and Sustainable Business, Clevedon, Channel View Publications, pp. 137-148.

22. Mihailović, B. (2008), Marketing, CPI, Podgorica.

23. Mitchell, M. and Hall D., (2005), “Rural Tourism as Sustainable Business: Key Themes and Issues”, in Hall, D., Kirkpatrick, I. and Mitchell, M. (Ed.) Rural Tourism and Sustainable Business, Clevedon, Channel View Publications, pp. 3-16.

24. Moric, I. (2013), “The Role and Challenges of Rural Tourism Development in Transition Countries: Montenegro Experiences”, Turizam, Vol. 17, No. 2, pp. 84-95.

25. Nylander, M. and Hall, M., (2005), “Rural Tourism Policy: European Perspectives”, in Hall, D., Kirkpatrick, I. and Mitchell, M. (Ed.) Rural Tourism and Sustainable Business, Clevedon, Channel View Publications, pp. 17-40.

26. OECD, (1994), “Tourism Strategies and Rural Development”, General Distribution, OECD / GD (94) 49, 013927, Paris.

27. Partalidou, M. and Koutsou, S. (2012), “Locally and Socially embedded Tourism Clusters in Rural Greece”, Tourismos: An International Multidisciplinary Journal of Tourism, Vol. 7, No. 1, pp. 99-116.

28. Pejić-Bach, M. (2003), “Data Mining in Public Organizations”, in Proceedings of ITI'2003, Budin, Leo, Lužar-Stiffler, Vesna, Bekić, Zoran, Hljuz Dobrić, Vesna (Eds.), Zgreb, SRCE University Computing Centre, pp. 211-216.

29. Pejić-Bach, M. (2003), “Surviving in an Environment of Financial Indiscipline: A Case Study from a Transition Country”, System Dynamics Review, Vol. 19, No. 1, pp. 47-74.

30. Porter, M.E. (1990), The Competitive Advantage of Nations, Macmillan.

31. Sharma, S., Goyal, D.P. Mittal, R.K. (2008), “Data Mining Research for Customer Relationship Management Systems: A Framework and Analysis”, International Journal of Business Information Systems, Vol. 3, No. 5, pp. 549-565.

32. Sharpley, R. (2002), “Rural Tourism and the Challenge of Tourism Diversification: The Case of Cyprus”, Tourism Management, Vol. 23, No. 3, pp. 233-244.

33. Sidali, K.L. (2011), A sideways look at farm tourism in Germany and in Italy, in Sidali, K.L, Spiller, A. and Schulze, B. (Ed.) Food, Agri-Culture and Tourism: Linking Local Gastronomy and Rural Tourism-Interdisciplinary Perspectives, Berlin, Springer, pp. 2-24.

34. Soteriades, M.D., Tyrogala, E.D. and Varvaressos, S.I. (2009), “Contribution of Networking and Clustering in Rural Tourism Business”, Tourismos: An International Multidisciplinary Journal of Tourism, Vol. 4, No. 4, pp. 35-56.

35. Telfer, J. D., Hashimoto, A. (2003), “Food Tourism in the Niagara Region: The Development of a Nouvelle Cuisine”, in Hall, C.M, Sharples, L., Mitchell, R., Macionis, N. and Cambourne B. (Ed.) Food Tourism Around the World: Development, management and Markets, Oxford, Butterworth-Heinemann, pp. 158-177.

36. UNDP, (2004), Strategic Framework for Development and Sustainable Tourism in Northern and Central Montenegro, Podgorica, UNDP.

37. UNWTO, (2004), Rural Tourism in Europe: Experiences, Development and Perspectives, UNWTO, 38. Verbole, A. (2005), “Networking and Partnership Building for Rural Tourism Development”, in Hall D., Roberts, L. and Mitchell, M. (Ed.) New Directions in Rural Tourism, Ashgate, Aldershot, pp. 152-168.

Business Systems Research Journal

The Journal of Society for Advancing Innovation and Research in Economy

Journal Information

CiteScore 2018: 0.57

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2018: 0.165
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2018: 0.388

Cited By

Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 312 271 12
PDF Downloads 135 129 5