Background: In contrast to the rational (IQ) and emotional intelligence (EQ), spiritual intelligence (SQ) is often underestimated and insufficiently investigated. This type of intelligence refers to our approach to the issue of the meaning and value of life, in terms that our actions are placed in a wider context. Objectives: The aim of this paper is to investigate in which extent spiritual intelligence determines the decision making process. In this context, the success of business decision is assigned as its functionality as one of the most prominent feature of successful decision. Methods: The inductive method of building an expert system, i.e. a knowledge based system (Doctus Knowledge-Based Expert System Shell) and casebased concluding on the degree of informativeness (with a key impact on functionality of decision) of individual components (Case Based Reasoning) are used in testing this relationship. Results: The study demonstrates the fact that most of respondents (managers) have not been even familiar with attributes of SI as well as their relationship with decision making process. Conclusions: Identification of the most significant components of SI that affect effectiveness of decisions would allow managers to focus on those which mostly contribute to the functionality of their decisions.
1. Benner, M.J., Tushman, M.L. (2003), “Exploitation, exploration, and process management: the productivity dilemma revisited”, Academy of Management Review, Vol. 28, No. 2, pp. 238-56.
2. Bennet, A., Bennet, D. (2007), The knowledge and knowing of spiritual learning, VINE: The journal of information and knowledge management systems Vol. 37, No. 2, pp. 150-168.
3. Boisnier, A., Chatman, J.A. (2003), “The role of subcultures in organizations”, in Peterson, R. and Mannix, E. (Ed.), Leading and Managing People in Dynamic Organizations, Earlbaum, pp. 87-112.
4. Butănescu, V. R. C. (2013), The Imperative of Addressing the Contemporary Crisis of Economics with Spiritual Intelligence. Procedia Economics and Finance, Vol. 6, pp. 19-24.
5. Chin, S. T. S., Raman, K., Yeow, J. A., Eze, U. C. (2012), Relationship Between Emotional Intelligence And Spiritual Intelligence In Nurturing Creativity And Innovation Among Successful Entrepreneurs: A Conceptual Framework. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, Vol. 57, pp. 261-267.
6. Clark, L., Leedy, S., McDonald, L., Muller, B., Lamb, C., Mendez, T., Kim, S. Schonwetter, R. (2007), “Spirituality and job satisfaction among hospice interdisciplinary team members”, Journal of Palliative Medicine, Vol. 10, No. 6, pp. 1321-8.
7. Cole, B.S., Hopkins, C.M., Tisak, J., Steel, J.L., Carr, B.I. (2008), “Assessing spiritual growth and spiritual decline following a diagnosis of cancer: reliability and validity of the spiritual transformation scale”, Psycho-oncology, Vol. 17, No. 2, pp. 112-21.
9. Gardner, H. (2000), A case against spiritual intelligence. The international journal for the psychology of religion, Vol. 10, No. 1, pp. 27-34.
10. George, M. (2006), Practical application of spiritual intelligence in the workplace. Human Resource Management International Digest, Vol. 14, No. 5, pp. 3-5.
11. Greenfield, E.A., Vaillant, G.E., Marks, N.E. (2009), “Do formal religious participation and spiritual perceptions have independent linkages with diverse dimensions of psychological well-being?”, Journal of Health and Social Behavior, Vol. 50, No. 2, pp. 196-212.
12. Ingersoll, R. E., Bauer, A. L. (2004), „An integral approach to spiritual wellness in school counseling settings“. Professional School Counseling, Vol. 7, pp. 301-308.
13. Joseph, R., Newburg, A., Albright, C. R., Rausch, C. A., Persinger, M., James, W., Nietzsche, F. (2003), Neurotheology, University Press.
14. Kadkhoda, M. Jahani,H. (2012 ), „Problem-solving capacities of spiritual intelligence for artificial intelligence“, Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences Vol. 32, pp. 170 - 175.
15. Lerner, M. (2000), Spirit Matters, Hampton Roads.
16. Luckock, T. (2008), „Spiritual Intelligence in Leadership Development“, Educational Management Administration & Leadership, Vol. 36, No. 3, pp. 373-391.
17. Marques, J. F. (2006), „The spiritual worker: An examination of the ripple effect that enhances quality of life in-and outside the work environment“, Journal of Management Development, Vol. 25, No. 9, pp. 884-895.
18. Newburg, A., D’Aquili, E., Rause, V. (2002), Why God won’t go away: Brain science and the biology of belief, Ballentine Books.
19. Klenke, K. (2003), „The “S” factor in leadership education, practice, and research“, Journal of Education for Business, Vol. 79, No. 1, pp. 56-60.
20. Perrone, K.M., Webb, L.K., Wright, S.L., Jackson, Z.V., Ksiazak, T.M. (2006), “Relationship of spirituality to work and family roles and life satisfaction among gifted adults”, Journal of Mental Health Counselling, Vol. 28, No. 3, pp.253-68.
21. Rezaei, H. (2012), „The application of information technology and its relationship with organizational intelligence“. Procedia Technology, Vol. 1, pp. 94-97.
22. Sisk, D. (2002), „Spiritual intelligence: the tenth intelligence that integrates all other intelligences“, Gifted Education International, Vol. 16, pp. 208-212.
23. Tombaugh, J.R., Mayfield, C., Durand, R. (2011), „Spiritual expression at work: exploring the active voice of workplace spirituality“, International Journal of Organizational Analysis Vol. 19, No. 2, pp. 146-170.
24. Vaughn, F. (2002), „What is Spiritual Intelligence?“, Journal of Humanistic Psychology, Vol. 42, No. 2, pp. 16-33.
25. White, S.R. (2006), „Spirituality and the Intellectual Development of College Students: The New Leadership Challenge in Higher Education“, International Electronic Journal for Leadership in Learning, Vol.10., available at: http://iejll.synergiesprairies.ca/iejll/index.php/ijll/article/view/613 / (10 September, 2013)
26. Wolman, R. N. (2001), Thinking with your soul: Spiritual intelligence and why it matters, Harmony Books.
27. Zohar, D. (2005), „Spiritually Intelligent Leadership“, Leader to Leader, Vol. 38, pp. 45-1.
28. Zohar, D., Marshall, I. (2000), SQ: Spiritual Intelligence, The Ultimate Intelligence, Bloomsbury.
29. Zohar, D. Marshall, I. (2004), Spiritual Capital: Using our Rational, Emotional and Spiritual Intelligence to Transform Ourselves and Corporate Culture, Bloomsbury